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Maternal systemic inflammation during pregnancy may restrict embryo−fetal growth, but the extent of this effect remains poorly established in undernourished populations. In a cohort of 653 maternal−newborn dyads participating in a multi-armed, micronutrient supplementation trial in southern Nepal, we investigated associations between maternal inflammation, assessed by serum α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein, in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and newborn weight, length and head and chest circumferences. Median (IQR) maternal concentrations in α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein in the first and third trimesters were 0.65 (0.53–0.76) and 0.40 (0.33–0.50) g/l, and 0.56 (0.25–1.54) and 1.07 (0.43–2.32) mg/l, respectively. α1-acid glycoprotein was inversely associated with birth size: weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were lower by 116 g (P = 2.3 × 10−6), and 0.45 (P = 3.1 × 10−5), 0.18 (P = 0.0191) and 0.48 (P = 1.7 × 10−7) cm, respectively, per 50% increase in α1-acid glycoprotein averaged across both trimesters. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, gestational age, nutritional and socio-economic status and daily micronutrient supplementation failed to alter any association. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was largely unassociated with newborn size. In rural Nepal, birth size was inversely associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation during pregnancy as indicated by serum α1-acid glycoprotein.
Fast ice flow is associated with the deformation of subglacial sediment. Seismic shear velocities, Vs, increase with the rigidity of material and hence can be used to distinguish soft sediment from hard bedrock substrates. Depth profiles of Vs can be obtained from inversions of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, from passive or active-sources, but these can be highly ambiguous and lack depth sensitivity. Our novel Bayesian transdimensional algorithm, MuLTI, circumvents these issues by adding independent depth constraints to the inversion, also allowing comprehensive uncertainty analysis. We apply MuLTI to the inversion of a Rayleigh wave dataset, acquired using active-source (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) techniques, to characterise sediment distribution beneath the frontal margin of Midtdalsbreen, an outlet of Norway's Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. Ice thickness (0–20 m) is constrained using co-located GPR data. Outputs from MuLTI suggest that partly-frozen sediment (Vs 500–1000 m s−1), overlying bedrock (Vs 2000–2500 m s−1), is present in patches with a thickness of ~4 m, although this approaches the resolvable limit of our Rayleigh wave frequencies (14–100 Hz). Uncertainties immediately beneath the glacier bed are <280 m s−1, implying that MuLTI cannot only distinguish bedrock and sediment substrates but does so with an accuracy sufficient for resolving variations in sediment properties.
NeuroStar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective acute treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to further understand use of the NeuroStar in a clinical setting, Neuronetics has established a patient treatment and outcomes registry to collect and analyze utilization information on patients receiving treatment with the NeuroStar.
Individual NeuroStar providers are invited to participate in the registry and agree to provide their de-identified patient treatment data. The NeuroStar has an integrated electronic data management system (TrakStar) which allows for the data collection to be automated. The data collected for the registry include Demographic Elements (age, gender), Treatment Parameters, and Clinical Ratings. Clinical assessments are: Clinician Global Impression - Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and thePatient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). De-identified patient data is uploaded to Registry server; an independent statistical service then creates final data reports.
Over 500 patients have entered the NeuroStar Outcomes Registry since Sept 2016. Mean patient age: 48.0 (SD±16.0); 64% Female. Baseline PHQ-9, mean 18.8 (SD±5.0.) Response/Remission Rate, PHQ-9: 61%/33% CGI-S: 78%/59%.
For the initial 500 patients in the Outcomes Registry, approximately 2/3 patients achieve respond and 1/3 patients achieve remission with an acute course of NeuroStar. These treatment outcomes consistent with NeuroStar open-label study data (Carpenter, 2012). The TrakStar data management system makes large scale data collection feasible. The NeuroStarOutcomes Registry is ongoing, and expected to reach 6000 outpatients from more than 47 clinical sites in 36 months.
We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5×106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition or high-explosive detonation. This morphology has not been reported previously in cosmic material, but has been observed in terrestrial impact material. This is the first highly enriched, discrete layer of NDs observed in glacial ice anywhere, and its presence indicates that ice caps are important archives of ET events of varying magnitudes. Using a preliminary ice chronology based on oxygen isotopes and dust stratigraphy, the ND-rich layer appears to be coeval with ND abundance peaks reported at numerous North American sites in a sedimentary layer, the Younger Dryas boundary layer (YDB), dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 ka. However, more investigation is needed to confirm this association.
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.
This study investigated the effect of water restriction on wool and blood cortisol concentrations and water consumption patterns in heat-stressed sheep. Nine Corriedale female sheep (average BW=43±6.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirement in metabolic crates. They were assigned to three treatments according to a Latin square design (3×3) for three periods with a 21-day duration for each period (nine sheep per treatment). Treatments included free access to water (FAW), 2 h water restriction (2hWR) and 3 h water restriction (3hWR) after feeding. Average temperature–humidity index in the experimental room was 27.9 throughout the experiment that defines heat stress conditions. Wool samples were taken at the end of each period on day 21. No differences were found in cortisol concentration in each fragment (dried, washed and residual extract) of wool (P<0.05). Total wool cortisol concentration was higher in the 3hWR group than the other treatments (P<0.05). Blood cortisol was not different among the treatments (P>0.05) and resulted in higher variable data compared with wool cortisol. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio suppressed in FAW and 3hWR groups compared with the 2hWR group (P<0.05). The duration of water consumption recorded after feeding in the 3hWR group was higher than in the 2hWR group when recorded in the afternoon (P<0.01). Water consumption rate was higher in the 3hWR group than in the 2hWR group (P<0.01). However, total water consumed was lower in the 3hWR group compared with other treatments (P>0.05). It can be concluded that wool cortisol provides more precise and accurate data than blood cortisol during heat stress conditions. Water restriction for 3 h after feeding can act as a stressor and is critical for sheep during heat stress as the consumption of water decreases with restriction.
Despite their popularity and unique characteristics, county shows, also known as agricultural fairs, are amongst the least-studied mass-gathering events. Suffolk Show is one of the biggest such events in the UK, attracting tens of thousands of people annually over a 2-day period. In addition to trade stands and livestock displays, the 2011 show included top international show jumping and other sport activities.
Due to the range of activities and large number of attendees of different ages and medical backgrounds, combined with a lack of objective data about medical contacts made during these events, medical officers and local emergency services find planning an appropriate level of medical coverage for county shows particularly challenging. This study involved analyzing the characteristics of medical contacts during a major county show and assessing the level of medical coverage provided.
Data collected from St John Ambulance (SJA) and British Red Cross standard medical records of all contacts on the show ground over the two days were analyzed in terms of demographics, presenting complaints, medical history, and discharge destination. The Event Safety Guide by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was the agreed standard for the level of medical coverage.
More than 90,000 people visited the show, with a total of 180 medical contacts recorded. Patient presentation rate (per 1,000 attendees) was 2.0 and the transport to hospital rate (per 1,000 attendees) was 0.1.
Of the 112 cases handled by SJA, 74 (66%) were women and 49 (44%) were 18-64 years of age. Wounds, lacerations and abrasions made up 26 (23.2%) of all presentations to SJA, followed by foot and lower limb blisters at 20 (17.8%). Hypertension was the most common medical history in presentations to SJA (11 cases, 10%), followed by asthma in 7 (6%).
The majority of presentations were due to minor injuries or ailments. An understanding of the event characteristics, demographics, and nature of medical contacts will provide organizers, medical officers, and local emergency services with information about the level of coverage and resources required. This data can further help advance knowledge of mass-gathering medicine across the various types of events.
PakravanAH, WestRJ, HodgkinsonDW. Suffolk Show 2011: Prehospital Medical Coverage in a Mass-gathering Event. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(5):1-4.
An understanding of the movement of a body of water can be considered a prerequisite to any other study whether it be physical or biological. This is particularly so in the case of an estuary where the water movements are complex. The movement of water in an estuary is primarily governed by the tidal and freshwater inputs, the resulting flow being modified by bed and channel configurations, salinity, and siltload variations. The tidal and freshwater inputs are themselves variables, the tidal range varying with the lunar cycle, and the freshwater input varying with the season or rainfall. The salinity variations within an estuary are interlinked with the tidal and freshwater fluctuating inputs. In addition the local and regional weather can modify the tidal response.
Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) films on SiO2 scan-melted at low velocities (20 to 300 µm/sec) with reduced thermal gradients at the melt-freezing interface are found to have qualitatively different properties from similar films melt-scanned at higher gradients and scan velocities. The transition between the two regimes appears to be abrupt. Scanning at intermediate velocities often results an admixture of patches containing one or the other type of material. The slow scan regime is characterized by long straight non-branched subboundaries having a lateral spacing 50-60 µm, and very small tilt misalignments of 0.1° or less. These slow scan subboundaries are found to consist largely of threading dislocations in contrast conventional subboundaries which are tilt boundaries of up to 3° and typically consist of edge dislocations running in the plane of the film.
From the early work on high dose oxygen implantation for buried SiO2 formation, it is apparent that the temperature of the Si substrate during the implant has a strong influence on the quality of both the SiO2 layer and the overlying Si. This, in turn, can be related to the damage from the oxygen implant. For substrate temperatures < ∼ 300°C, amorphous Si is created during the implant and leads to the formation of twins or polycrystalline Si during the subsequent high temperature (>1300°C) anneal. At higher substrate temperatures (<∼400°C), dynamic annealing eliminates the amorphous Si, but the implanted oxygen appears to segregate during the implant leading to oxygen-rich amorphous regions imbedded in regions of crystalline material. As the amorphous regions start to coalesce and form SiO2 during the high temperature anneal, they trap crystalline Si which cannot escape by diffusion. This process can be circumvented by using a randomizing Si implant to change the damage structure from the oxygen implant before annealing. We have seen these effects clearly in sub-stoichiometric implants, and believe they are also operative during stoichiometric implants.
Ion beam synthesis of a buried SiO2 layer is an attractive silicon-on-insulator technology for high speed CMOS circuits and radiation hardened devices. We demonstrate here a new annealing procedure at 1405°C that produces silicon films of excellent quality, essentially free of oxygen precipitates and with sharp interfaces between the Si and the SiO2.
Cobalt silicide films have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition using Co2 (CO)8 or HCo(CO)4 as the Co source and SiH4 or Si2 H6 as the Si source. The Co:Si ratio of the films increases with the deposition temperature, and CoSi2 stoichiometry is obtained at 300° C using SiH4 or at 225° C when Si2 H6 is the Si precursor. Resistivities of films deposited in the range CoSi2.0 to CoSi3.0. are typically 200 microohm-cm and drop to 30 – 40 microohm-cm upon annealing at 900° C.
Knoop hardness and nanoindentation studies were performed on single and multilayered 80/20 mol % TiO2/SiO2 films spin-coated onto  silicon wafers. The Knoop microhardness results indicated that a total sol-gel thickness (h) to indentation depth (h*) ratio of >2 was sufficient to obtain reliable thin film properties independent of substrate influence. Electron microscopy techniques were used to determine the sample's absolute film thickness, to examine the morphology of the indentations, and to determine the phase of the sol-gel thin films.
Germanium films were deposited on GaAs (100) substrates at temperatures between room temperature (RT) and 500°C using ultra high vacuum (UHV) E-beam and sputtering deposition methods. The Ge film deposited in UHV at 100°C was amorphous and had a flat absorbance curve over the range investigated, 4000 - 500 cm-1, with a value of 0.03 at 1000 cm1 (10μm). Films deposited by E-beam at RT and 50°C had comparably low absorbances, but they contained a peak at 830 cm-1, which was possibly due to absorption by a Ge-O bond. The amorphous film deposited at 150°C and the single crystal films deposited at 400 and 500°C by E-beam had larger absorbances caused by free carrier absorption. The amorphous Ge sputtered film deposited at RT had a relatively low absorbance, but it contained the absorption peak attributed to Ge-O. The absorbance increased dramatically when it was annealed at 400 or 500°C due to the rapid out diffusion of Ga and As through the relatively open structure.
Over the years a number of scintillator materials have been developed for a wide variety of nuclear detection applications in industry, high energy physics, and medical instrumentation. To expand the list of useful scintillators, we are pursuing the following systematic, comprehensive search: (1) select materials with good gamma-ray interaction properties from the 200,000 data set NIST crystal diffraction file, (2) synthesize samples (doped and undoped) in powdered or single crystal form, (3) test the samples using sub-nanosecond pulsed x-rays to measure important scintillation properties such as rise times, decay times, emission wavelengths, and light output, (4) prepare large, high quality crystals of the most promising candidates, and (5) test the crystals as gamma-ray detectors in representative configurations. An important parallel effort is the computation of electronic energy levels of activators and the band structure of intrinsic and host crystals to aid in the materials selection process.
The electronic properties of a series of n-type doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films grown with deposition rates ranging from 2 Å/s to 33 Å/s have been studied. Infrared absorption spectroscopy shows an increase in S1-H2 content with deposition rate, concurrent with a decreasing conductivity, increasing thermal equilibration relaxation time, and increasing disorder at the mobility edge as measured by the difference in thermopower and dark conductivity activation energies. The current 1/f noise properties become highly nonstationary, with increased variability and inapplicability of statistical analysis as the deposition rate increases.
We report measurements of the conductivity, thermopower, and conductance fluctuations before and after light exposure for a-Si:H samples that show either persistent photoconductivity (PPC) or a Staebler-Wronski effect. Both the conductivity and thermopower are changed by light exposure, but no change is observed in the difference between the conductivity and thermopower activation energies for any of the samples studied here. This suggests that the long-range disorder is unaffected by light exposure. For some samples, the magnitude or statistical properties of the conductance fluctuations are affected by light exposure. We compare these results to previous studies of the Staebler-Wronski effect and discuss their implications for models of the light-induced changes and the 1/f noise in a-Si:H.