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The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.
Scientific textbooks deserve substantial scrutiny because they generally appeal to a wider audience than technical papers; book reviews in journals are one mode of critiquing a book's scientific content. It is contended that the review by Lugo of the book Tropical Conservation Biology was based on a superficial reading, and omitted some basic principles and literature in conservation science.
This study uses social network analysis to investigate potential contact among 214 dog-owning households in a UK community through their utilization of public space during walking. We identified a high level of potential contact between dog-owning households; most households walked their dogs in only a few areas but a small number visited many. Highly connected households were more likely to have multiple dogs, walk their dogs off lead, and own Working, Pastoral or some Terrier types. Similarly, most areas were only visited by a few households but a few were visited by many. Despite identification of subgroups of households and locations, we demonstrated high connectivity between dog-owning households, with minimum path lengths of two ‘steps’ (household–area–household, 74%) or four ‘steps’ (via two areas, 26%).
Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982–2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.
It is often claimed that certain dominance-related problems in dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and owner. In particular it is thought that allowing a dog to win uncontrolled games such as Tug-of-War will increase the likelihood of it attempting to become dominant over its owner. However questionnaires (Goodloe & Borchelt, 1998) and experimental studies of Labrador and Golden Retrievers (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) have found no evidence for these postulated effects. In this paper we further investigate possible links between the types of games played in the domestic environment and both dominance and attachment dimensions of the dog-owner relationship.
In the diagnosis and treatment of behavioural disorders in multi-cat households, it is often assumed that a dominance hierarchy exists between the cats (e.g. Crowell-Davis, 2002). While such hierarchies are probably commonplace among dogs, what evidence there is to support the existence of social hierarchies in groups of domestic cats has mainly been gathered from reproductively entire animals, such as single sex laboratory colonies, and free-ranging aggregations of ferals. For example, Natoli et al. (2001) used receipt of “submissive” (defensive) behaviour to construct a weakly linear hierarchy in a group of 14 farm cats, but this did not correspond to the hierarchy derived from receipt of affiliative behaviour. We have investigated the alternative hypotheses that apparent dominance hierarchies in multi-cat households may actually be based upon territorial behaviour, or some other undetermined social system.
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is rare in childhood with only a few cases reported in world literature. We report a 7-year-old male who presented with acute ataxia, swallowing difficulties, dysarthria, and radiological features consistent with the disorder. He improved remarkably with oral prednisolone therapy and was almost back to normal by 2 weeks. A review of the literature is also included.
The forest pathogen Dothistroma pini (Scirrhia pini) infects the needles of many pine species, causing needle loss and consequently
retarded wood growth. Only one strain of Dothistroma pini is present in New Zealand. Because over 90% of commercial forests in
New Zealand are planted with the susceptible species Pinus radiata, a study of the global diversity of D. pini strains was initiated to
assess the threat of further unwanted introductions of the pathogen. A collection of D. pini strains from eight countries was studied
in the UK. The production of dothistromin toxin by the strains, and DNA sequence analysis of the ribosomal ITS region, confirmed
their identification as D. pini, although strains from the central USA contained two nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region.
Colony morphologies and growth rates were diverse, but all strains which sporulated showed a similar wide range of spore size. The
morphological features examined did not support separation of the strains into the two groups shown by ITS sequences. Most
striking was the production, in axenic culture, of extremely high levels of dothistromin toxin by strains from Germany and, to a
lesser extent, some from the USA (>500 times and >40 times as much as the New Zealand strain, respectively). The high level
of production of dothistromin toxin by some strains is a concern for forest health as well as for forest workers and needs to be
The determination of fluorescence lifetime requires only relative measurements of intensity and so is especially useful for biomedical samples in which the heterogeneous nature of tissue and autofluorescence cause significant problems. Since fluorescence lifetime is dependent upon both radiative and non-radiative decay rates, it may be used to distinguish between different fluorophore molecules (with different radiative decay rates) and to monitor local environmental perturbations that affect the non-radiative decay rate. Fluorescence lifetime probes have been demonstrated for many biologically significant analytes including [O2], [Ca2+] and pH. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can be applied to almost any optical imaging modality, including microscopy and potentially to non-invasive optical biopsy. Fluorescence lifetime data may be acquired in the frequency or time domain. The recent development of user-friendly and relatively portable ultrafast laser technology and the availability of ultrafast gated optical image intensifiers (GOI’s) enable the development of potentially inexpensive time domain FLIM instruments that may be deployed outside specialist laser laboratories.
The neutral impurities boron and fluorine have been studied as species for impurity induced disordering. In the GaAs/AlGaAs system fluorine disordered multiple quantum well waveguide structures exhibited blue shifts of up to 100 meV in the absorption edge (representing complete disordering) accompanied by substantial changes, > 1%, in the refractive index. The absorption coefficient in partially disordered structures at near band-edge wavelengths was as low as 4.7 dB cm−1. Integrated extended cavity lasers have been fabricated with low losses (19 ± 8.4 dB cm−1) in the passive waveguide. Disordering of GalnAs/AlGalnAs and GalnAs/GalnAsP quantum well structures lattice matched to InP has also been investigated. The temperature stability of as-grown phosphorus-quaternary material is poor, with blue shifts of the exciton peak occuring at temperatures greater than 500°C, but the aluminium-quaternary is stable to at least 650°C. Large blue shifts (up to 90 meV for phosphorus quaternary and 45 meV for aluminium quaternary samples) were observed in the fluorine-implanted samples. The estimated loss in fluorine-disordered phosphorus quaternary samples is typically around 8 dB cm“−1.
Learning is said to be state-dependent when a response which is learned in a given internal state shows disproportionate decrement in retention when the internal state of the learner is changed. Research on this phenomenon has a long history. It was first noted by investigators who were concerned with the problem of whether overt responses were necessary for the formation of classically conditioned responses. Curare was used to eliminate the overt response, and it was found that:
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