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The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother–infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1–2 or ⩾3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1–2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ⩾3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ⩾3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β −0.25; 95% CI: −0.45, −0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β −0.34; 95% CI: −0.65, −0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β −0.33; 95% CI: −0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers’ report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.
Preterm birth affects over 12% of all infants born in the United States; yet the biology of early delivery remains unclear, including whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved. We examined associations of maternal and umbilical cord blood long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) DNA methylation with length of gestation and odds of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies in Project Viva. In white blood cells from maternal blood during first trimester (n = 914) and second trimester (n = 922), and from venous cord blood at delivery (n = 557), we measured LINE-1 by pyrosequencing [expressed as %5 methyl cytosines within the LINE-1 region analyzed (%5mC)]. We ran linear regression models to analyze differences in gestation length, and logistic models for odds of preterm birth (<37 v. ⩾37 weeks’ gestation), across quartiles of LINE-1. Mean (s.d.) LINE-1 levels were 84.3 (0.6), 84.5 (0.4) and 84.6 (0.7) %5mC for first trimester, second trimester and cord blood, respectively. Mean (s.d.) gestational age was 39.5 (1.8) weeks, and 6.5% of infants were born preterm. After adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, education, smoking status and fetal sex, women with the highest v. lowest quartile of first trimester LINE-1 had longer gestations [0.45 weeks (95% CI 0.12, 0.78)] and lower odds of preterm birth [OR 0.40 (0.17, 0.94)], whereas associations with cord blood LINE-1 were in the opposite direction (−0.45 weeks, −0.83, −0.08) and [OR 4.55 (1.18, 17.5)]. In conclusion, higher early pregnancy LINE-1 predicts lower risk of preterm birth. In contrast, preterm birth is associated with lower LINE-1 in cord blood.
The visible photoluminescence of nanocrystalline TiO2 is examined in the presence of surface binding agents and as a function of vacuum annealing in order to probe the molecular nature of surface defects. The photoluminesence (PL) of bulk crystals of anatase TiO2 from (101) and (001) planes is also reported in order to test the hypothesis that electron and hole traps are spatially isolated on different crystal planes. We find that a number of hole scavengers are capable of quenching the PL associated with trapped electrons, while the ability of oxygen to quench PL through electron scavenging varies with the nature of the sample. We conclude that hole scavengers exert their influence on the PL through reaction with valence band holes rather than with spatially isolated trapped holes. Scavenging of electrons by O2, on the other hand, depends on adsorption at oxygen vacancies and varies with TiO2 sample.
In this paper the impact of post deposition annealing in various ambient on electrical properties of hafnium zirconate (HfxZr1-xO2) high-k dielectrics is reported. ALD HfxZr1-xO2 films are annealed in a nitrogen and/or oxygen ambient at 500°C to 1000°C. Devices annealed at 500°C in N2 has lower equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 10Å without significant increase in gate leakage (Jg), threshold voltage (Vt) and only a slight decrease in transconductance (Gm) values compared to 500°C O2 annealed devices. Furthermore, the impact of annealing HfxZr1-xO2 films in a reducing ambient (NH3) is studied. Optimized NH3 anneal on HfxZr1-xO2 results in lower CET, improved PBTI, low sub-threshold swing values, comparable high-field Gm with only a minor degradation in peak Gm compared to control HfxZr1-xO2. Finally, the impact of laser annealing vs. RTP annealed HfxZr1-xO2 films are reported. Laser annealing helped further stabilize tetragonal phase of HfxZr1-xO2 without inducing void formation. Good devices with low leakage, low EOT and high mobility are obtained for laser annealed HfxZr1-xO2.
This chapter is concerned with the use made by the Romans of treaties of alliance and other forms of association in the extension of their imperial power under the Republic. Although attention is paid to their overseas expansion, the chapter deals principally with the Roman conquest of Italy and seeks to challenge the generally accepted view that all the Romans' non-colonial Italian allies were bound to them by treaties. This is not a merely technical issue, but has far-reaching implications for our understanding both of the process of conquest and of Roman imperial structures.
Down to the mid fourth century bc the Romans were just one of the peoples of west central Italy, and their armies never ranged further than about fifty miles from their city. Their relations with their fellow Latins were governed by a treaty between Rome and the Latin League, said to have been concluded by the consul Spurius Cassius in 493. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (6.95) claims to report the treaty terms; if these are accurate, the treaty was an alliance on equal terms, but in the event the Romans were increasingly the dominant partner.
In 343 bc the Romans ventured further afield for the first time, to Campania, and became embroiled in the first of their wars against the Samnites, a powerful league of Oscan-speaking peoples in the southern central Apennines. This led to war between the Romans and the Latin League, aided by Campanians and others.
This study assessed risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization and disease severity in Wellington, New Zealand. During the southern hemisphere winter months of 2003–2005, 230 infants aged <24 months hospitalized with bronchiolitis were recruited. RSV was identified in 141 (61%) infants. Comparison with data from all live hospital births from the same region (2003–2005) revealed three independent risk factors for RSV hospitalization: birth between February and July [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1·62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·15–2·29], gestation <37 weeks (aRR 2·29, 95% CI 1·48–3·56) and Māori ethnicity (aRR 3·64, 95% CI 2·27–5·85) or Pacific ethnicity (aRR 3·60, 95% CI 2·14–6·06). The high risk for Māori and Pacific infants was only partially accounted for by other known risk factors. This work highlights the importance of RSV disease in indigenous and minority populations, and identifies the need for further research to develop public health measures that can reduce health disparities.
According to Suetonius, Nero Claudius Drusus, the younger of Augustus' two stepsons, was said to have aspired to win spolia opima, that is, spoils taken from an enemy commander killed in battle. The aim of this paper is to consider what substance there may be in this claim and what light it may throw on Augustus’ relationship with the princes of the imperial family.