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The analysis of the Sun by spectroscopic methods refers to an exceedingly thin layer, just above the photosphere, which has a thickness of only a few hundreds of kilometers. The deeper layers are inaccessible to our investigations, because there the matter becomes too opaque. The higher layers of the chromosphere and the corona again are less well known, because they are too transparent, so that deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions may occur. So it is understandable that just the layer where the equilibrium is nearly established must be the only layer which can be fully investigated. Probably this is the best analysed sample of the universe. Whether the composition here found is really representative for the Sun as a whole depends on the importance of the convection, which tends to stir the gases into one homogeneous mixture.
Little is known about predictors of recovery from bipolar depression.
We investigated affective instability (a pattern of frequent and large mood shifts over time) as a predictor of recovery from episodes of bipolar depression and as a moderator of response to psychosocial treatment for acute depression.
A total of 252 out-patients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder and who were depressed enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) and were randomised to one of three types of intensive psychotherapy for depression (n = 141) or a brief psychoeducational intervention (n = 111). All analyses were by intention-to-treat.
Degree of instability of symptoms of depression and mania predicted a lower likelihood of recovery and longer time until recovery, independent of the concurrent effects of symptom severity. Affective instability did not moderate the effects of psychosocial treatment on recovery from depression.
Affective instability may be a clinically relevant characteristic that influences the course of bipolar depression.
The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients' prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy.
Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments.
Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT) = 2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT = 32.0) or >20 (NNT = 9.0) depressive episodes.
Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression.
Background: Depression is frequently characterized by patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, and ruminative thinking styles, which are thought to result from a combination of decreased attentional control, decreased executive functioning, and increased negative affect. Cognitive Control Training (CCT) uses computer-based behavioral exercises with the aim of strengthening cognitive and emotional functions. A previous study found that severely depressed participants who received CCT exhibited reduced negative affect and rumination as well as improved concentration. Aims: The present study aimed to extend this line of research by employing a more stringent control group and testing the efficacy of three sessions of CCT over a 2-week period in a community population with depressed mood. Method: Forty-eight participants with high Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores were randomized to CCT or a comparison condition (Peripheral Vision Training; PVT). Results: Significant large effect sizes favoring CCT over PVT were found on the BDI-II (d = 0.73, p < .05) indicating CCT was effective in reducing negative mood. Additionally, correlations showed significant relationships between CCT performance (indicating ability to focus attention on CCT) and state affect ratings. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CCT is effective in altering depressed mood, although it may be specific to select mood dimensions.
Nanometer size lead iodide particles have been synthesized in the porous network of a cross-linked polymer matrix. The optical band gap of the nanocrystals is shifted towards higher energy as compared to the bulk value. This shift is attributed to the quantum size effect on excitons. Intercalation with aniline leads to a further shift in the band gap which depends on the dipole moment of the intercalated guest species. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction have been used to analyze the ferroelectric transition in Pbl2.
Well defined spherical particles of γ- Fe2O3 have been synthesized in the pores of a polymer matrix in the form of beads by an ion exchange and precipitation reaction. The particle size distribution is a gaussian with an average diameter of 80 A. The DC magnetic susceptibility and the magnetization of the nanocomposite has been measured between 4 and 300 K using a Faraday balance and a magnetometer, respectively. The magnetic measurements demonstrate that the particles are superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature Tb about 55 K. The optical absorption edge of the mesoscopic system is red shifted with respect to single crystal films of γ-Fe2O3 with an absorption tail extended deeply in the gap. Although lattice distortion and existence of excitonic states in the gap can explain the absorption behavior, the red shift can successfully be explained by the quantum confinement of an electron-hole pair in a spherical well.
Ductile materials are difficult to powderize for use in high pressure work. The potential of different techniques (gas-atomization, mechanical alloying, ball milling and subsequent annealing) for preparing suitable powders of some aluminides is investigated. Compression of Ti46Al54 and NiAl prepared by these methods yields equation of state parameters in good agreement with determinations by other methods.
The elastic and plastic deformation of micron size anisotropic polycrystals of Ni3Al and Cu3Au intermetallic alloys have been studied under non-hydrostatic conditions by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) in a diamond-anvil cell. Compression was achieved by confining the samples in a viscous fluid or directly between the diamond anvils. Deviatoric forces are introduced in the samples as a result of the increasing viscosity with pressure and the eventual glassification of the pressurizing medium or by the contact forces of the diamond anvils. Line shifts and line profiles were used to analyze elastic and plastic strains. Plastic deformation is due to the onset of non-hydrostatic stresses and the introduction of stacking faults and dislocations. A volume incompressibility due to plastic deformation and the saturation of the stacking fault probability is followed by an elastic compression of a fully plastically deformed state. The compression of this state is isotropic and independent of the presence and type of the pressurizing medium. From the measured strains at different crystallographic orientations, the uniaxial stress and the stacking fault probability as a function of the confining pressure are derived and their role in the equation of state is examined. Using finite elasticity, the equation of state is derived in the presence of uniaxial stresses causing stacking faults, defects and dislocations.
Purinergic receptors are important for the regulation of inflammation, muscle contraction, neurotransmission and nociception. Extracellular ATP and its metabolites are the main ligands for these receptors. Occasional reports on beneficial results of ATP administration in human and animal studies have suggested the bioavailability of oral ATP supplements. We investigated whether prolonged daily intake of oral ATP is indeed bioavailable. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomised to receive 0, 250, 1250 or 5000 mg ATP per d for 28 d by means of enteric-coated pellets. In addition, on days 0 and 28, all thirty-two subjects received 5000 mg ATP to determine whether prolonged administration would induce adaptations in the bioavailability of ATP. ATP supplementation for 4 weeks did not lead to changes in blood or plasma ATP concentrations. Of all ATP metabolites, only plasma uric acid levels increased significantly after the administration of 5000 mg of ATP. Prolonged administration of ATP was safe as evidenced from liver and kidney parameters. We conclude that oral administration of ATP only resulted in increased uric acid concentrations. On the basis of these findings, we seriously question the claimed efficacy of oral ATP at dosages even lower than that used in the present study.
Background: Recent advances have been made in the application of cognitive training strategies as interventions for mental disorders. One novel approach, cognitive control training (CCT), uses computer-based exercises to chronically increase prefrontal cortex recruitment. Activation of prefrontal control mechanisms have specifically been identified with attenuation of emotional responses. However, it is unclear whether recruitment of prefrontal resources alone is operative in this regard, or whether prefrontal control is important only in the role of explicit emotion regulation. This study examined whether exposure to cognitive tasks before an emotional challenge attenuated the effects of the emotional challenge. Aims: We investigated whether a single training session could alter participants' reactivity to subsequent emotional stimuli on two computer-based tasks as well as affect ratings made during the study. We hypothesized that individuals performing the Cognitive Control (CC) task as compared to those performing the Peripheral Vision (PV) comparison task would (1) report reduced negative affect following the mood induction and the emotion task, and (2) exhibit reduced reactivity (defined by lower affective ratings) to negative stimuli during both the reactivity and recovery phases of the emotion task and (3) show a reduced bias towards threatening information. Method: Fifty-nine healthy participants were randomized to complete CC tasks or PV, underwent a negative mood induction, and then made valence and arousal ratings for IAPS images, and completed an assessment of attentional bias. Results: Results indicated that a single-session of CC did not consistently alter participants' responses to either task. However, performance on the CC tasks was correlated on subsequent ratings of emotional images. Conclusions: While overall these results do not support the idea that affective responding is altered by making healthy volunteers use their prefrontal cortex before the affective task, they are discussed in the context of study design issues and future research directions.
The impact of anxiety disorders has not been well delineated in prospective studies of bipolar disorder.
To examine the association between anxiety and course of bipolar disorder, as defined by mood episodes, quality of life and role functioning.
A thousand out-patients with bipolar disorder were followed prospectively for 1 year.
A current comorbid anxiety disorder (present in 31.9% of participants) was associated with fewer days well, a lower likelihood of timely recovery from depression, risk of earlier relapse, lower quality of life and diminished role function over 1 year of prospective study. The negative impact was greater with multiple anxiety disorders.
Anxiety disorders, including those present during relative euthymia, predicted a poorer bipolar course. The detrimental effects of anxiety were not simply a feature of mood state. Treatment studies targeting anxiety disorders will help to clarify the nature of the impact of anxiety on bipolar course.
Despite ample evidence of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of patients with panic disorder (PD), dissemination of this evidence is proceeding slowly. This article highlights some of the issues surrounding the dissemination of CBT for PD and suggests strategies for integrating CBT with pharmacotherapy. Treatment principles, with attention to the modification of CBT protocols for use in a brief-contact format, are reviewed. The principles and application of exposure interventions are discussed for both in vivo (situational) and interoceptive (feared anxiety sensations) exposure, with emphasis on the learning of safety in the context of feared sensations of anxiety. Contextual factors that may affect the success of exposure interventions and cognitive and informational interventions are also discussed.
A growing body of evidence documents the value of structured psychotherapeutic interventions for the co-management of bipolar disorder in the context of ongoing medication treatment. This article reviews the rationale, elements, and outcomes for those psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder that have been emmined in randomized trials. The available evidence suggests that interventions delivered in individual, group, or family settings, can provide significant benefit to patients undergoing pharmaco-theraby for bibolar disorder.
Polycrystalline Ni50Al50 suitable for high pressure studies was prepared by grinding and subsequent annealing of an inert-gas atomized alloy. The equation of state was determined by energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell to 25 GPa. The bulk modulus Bo and the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus B′o were found to be Bo = 156 ± 3 GPa and B′o = 4.0 ± 0.5.
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