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A 4-year-old boy presented with intractable atrial tachycardia and heart failure. Antiarrhythmic drugs, such as digoxin, beta-blockers, and amiodarone were ineffective. Although we attempted multiple radiofrequency catheter ablations, the atrial tachycardia arising from left atrial appendage frequently recurred. Finally, we decided to perform atrial appendectomy using the thoracoscopic approach. Immediately after the appendectomy, the atrial tachycardia was terminated and restored to sinus rhythm. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 33 to 60% within 1 week. He had no arrhythmia during the subsequent 9-month follow-up period. Minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery can be applied even in a small child who has focal atrial tachycardia originating from an atrial appendage.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
We present CCD photometric results of the eclipsing binary Y Cam with a pulsating component. The dominant pulsation frequency of 15.0473 c d-1 has not changed over 39 years, but its amplitude decreased to about half. The pulsational properties of the second frequency showed great differences between Broglia & Conconi (1984)’s result and ours.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with abnormal cognitive and emotional functions and these dysfunctions may be dependent on the disruption of dynamic interactions within neuronal circuits associated with emotion regulation. Although several studies have shown the aberrant cognitive–affective processing in OCD patients, little is known about how to characterize effective connectivity of the disrupted neural interactions. In the present study, we applied effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling to explore the disturbed neural interactions in OCD patients.
A total of 20 patients and 21 matched healthy controls performed a delayed-response working memory task under emotional or non-emotional distraction while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
During the delay interval under negative emotional distraction, both groups showed similar patterns of activations in the amygdala. However, under negative emotional distraction, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited significant differences between groups. Bayesian model averaging indicated that the connection from the DLPFC to the OFC was negatively modulated by negative emotional distraction in patients, when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected).
Exaggerated recruitment of the DLPFC may induce the reduction of top-down prefrontal control input over the OFC, leading to abnormal cortico-cortical interaction. This disrupted cortico-cortical interaction under negative emotional distraction may be responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive and emotional processing in OCD patients and may be a component of the pathophysiology associated with OCD.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, relapsing mental illness. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors block serotonin transporters (SERTs) and are the mainstay of treatment for OCD. SERT abnormalities are reported in drug-free patients with OCD, but it is not known what happens to SERT levels during treatment. This is important as alterations in SERT levels in patients under treatment could underlie poor response, or relapse during or after treatment. The aim of the present study was first to validate a novel approach to measuring SERT levels in people taking treatment and then to investigate SERT binding potential (BP) using [11C]DASB PET in patients with OCD currently treated with escitalopram in comparison with healthy controls.
Twelve patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The patients and healthy controls underwent serial PET scans after administration of escitalopram and blood samples for drug concentrations were collected simultaneously with the scans. Drug-free BPs were obtained by using an inhibitory Emax model we developed previously.
The inhibitory Emax model was able to accurately predict drug-free SERT BP in people taking drug treatment. The drug-free BP in patients with OCD currently treated with escitalopram was significantly different from those in healthy volunteers [Cohen's d = 0.03 (caudate), 1.16 (putamen), 1.46 (thalamus), −5.67 (dorsal raphe nucleus)].
This result extends previous findings showing SERT abnormalities in drug-free patients with OCD by indicating that altered SERT availability is seen in OCD despite treatment. This could account for poor response and the high risk of relapse in OCD.
To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas.
Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53.
Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours.
The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.
This study investigated the effect of water restriction on wool and blood cortisol concentrations and water consumption patterns in heat-stressed sheep. Nine Corriedale female sheep (average BW=43±6.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirement in metabolic crates. They were assigned to three treatments according to a Latin square design (3×3) for three periods with a 21-day duration for each period (nine sheep per treatment). Treatments included free access to water (FAW), 2 h water restriction (2hWR) and 3 h water restriction (3hWR) after feeding. Average temperature–humidity index in the experimental room was 27.9 throughout the experiment that defines heat stress conditions. Wool samples were taken at the end of each period on day 21. No differences were found in cortisol concentration in each fragment (dried, washed and residual extract) of wool (P<0.05). Total wool cortisol concentration was higher in the 3hWR group than the other treatments (P<0.05). Blood cortisol was not different among the treatments (P>0.05) and resulted in higher variable data compared with wool cortisol. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio suppressed in FAW and 3hWR groups compared with the 2hWR group (P<0.05). The duration of water consumption recorded after feeding in the 3hWR group was higher than in the 2hWR group when recorded in the afternoon (P<0.01). Water consumption rate was higher in the 3hWR group than in the 2hWR group (P<0.01). However, total water consumed was lower in the 3hWR group compared with other treatments (P>0.05). It can be concluded that wool cortisol provides more precise and accurate data than blood cortisol during heat stress conditions. Water restriction for 3 h after feeding can act as a stressor and is critical for sheep during heat stress as the consumption of water decreases with restriction.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of post-operative voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal.
The study retrospectively enrolled 55 consecutive patients who had undergone voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal occurring between June 2010 and June 2011. A historical group of 63 similar patients not receiving voice therapy was used as an external control. We compared voice analysis parameters and Voice Handicap Index scores for the two groups.
Most objective and subjective voice outcome parameters were significantly improved after surgical treatment. Although the study and control groups showed no significant difference regarding objective parameters (using acoustic and aerodynamic analysis) or the subjective parameters assessed using the grade-roughness-breathiness-asthenia-strain scale, the study group had significantly better final Voice Handicap Index scores.
Following surgery for vocal polyps, post-operative voice therapy can improve patients' vocal discomfort, emotional responses and everyday self-perception.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
Although immediate notification of a case is crucial for epidemic control, clinicians may delay notification due to uncertainties in diagnosis, reflecting a trade-off between timeliness and the accuracy of surveillance. We assessed this trade-off for four epidemic-prone diseases that require immediate notification of suspected cases: shigellosis, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and cholera in the Korean National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System data for 2001–2007. Timeliness was measured as the time to registration (TR), being the time interval from symptom onset to notification by the clinician to the local public health centre. We introduced a new index, ‘time-accuracy trade-off ratio’ to indicate time saved by clinical vs. laboratory-based notifications. Clinical notifications comprised 34·4% of total notifications, and these showed a shorter median TR than laboratory-based notifications (1–4 days). The trade-off ratio was greatest for shigellosis (3·3 days), and smallest for typhoid fever (0·6 days). A higher trade-off ratio provides stronger evidence for clinical notification without waiting for laboratory confirmation.
We investigated the optical properties of Fabry-Perot microcavity with a tris(8- hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) organic film by measuring the photoluminescence (PL) and transmittance. An Alq3 layer as an active layer was sandwiched between two mirrors, which were metal or (TiO2|SiO2) dielectric multilayer reflectors. An Alq3 layer on glass, [air|Alq3|glass], showed a PL peak around 513 nm and its full width half maximum (FWHM) was about 80 nm. Three types of microcavity, such as Type A [air|metal|Alq3|metal|glass], Type B [air|dielectric|Alq3|dielectric|glass], and Type C [air|metal|Alq3|dielectric|glass], were fabricated. The result shows that the FWHMs of three Fabry-Perot microcavities were reduced to 15∼27.5, 7∼10.5 and 16∼16.6 nm, respectively, and the microcavity structure is expected to improve the efficiency and tunability of emission spectrum in display.
Solid-phase crystallization (SPC) behavior of a-Si film [a-Si(II)] in which oxygen concentration (CO) is higher at the a-Si/SiO2 interface (CO=5×1021/cm3) than at the film surface (CO=3×1020/cm3) has been investigated. The results were also compared with that of a-Si single layer [a- Si(I), 600 Å] with CO=3×1020/cm3. It has been found that the interface-nucleation was suppressed in the a-Si(II) and the surface-nucleation occurred to make a poly-Si/a-Si (300 Å/300Å) bilayer structure. Many equiaxial grains with sizes of 1∼2 [.proportional]m were formed in the surface- nucleated poly-Si layer. Compared with the results of conventional SPC poly-Si (600 Åthick) in which elliptical grains with sizes of 0.5∼1 [.proportional]m were formed by the interface (a-Si/SiO2)- nucleation, we concluded that the poly-Si/a-Si bilayer scheme is a method to improve the microstructure of SPC poly-Si film.
We have grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a large area of Co-Ni codeposited Si substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition using C2H2 gas. The carbon nanotubes grown by the thermal chemical vapor deposition are multi-wall structure, and the wall surface of nanotubes is covered with defective graphite sheets or carbonaceous particles. The carbon nanotubes range from 50 to 120 nm in diameter and about 130 μm in length at 950 °C. Steric hindrance between nanotubes at an initial stage of the growth forces nanotubes to align vertically. The turn-on voltage was about 0.8 V/μm with a current density of 0.1 μA/cm2 and emission current reveals the Fowler-Nordheim mode.
The effects of SiO2 reactive ion etching (RIE) in CHF3 / C2F6 on the surface properties of the underlying Si substrate have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques. The observed two major modifications are (i) a ∼50nm thick silicon layer which contains carbon and fluorine and (ii) 2∼3nm thick residue layer composed entirely of carbon, fluorine, oxygen and hydrogen on the silicon surface. The thermal behaviors of attributed peaks for C 1s, Si 2p, O 1s and F 1s of residue film have been analyzed after in-situ resistive anneal under ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition. C-F1, C-F2 and C-F3 bonds decompose and form C-CFx (x≤3) bonds above 200°C. Above 400°C, C-CFx bonds also decompose to C-C/H bonds. For recovery of the modified silicon surface, reactive ion etched specimens have been exposed to an oxygen plasma. By XPS analysis, the effect of an O2 plasma treatment has been revealed to be completed within 20min. With an O2 plasma pre-treated, a rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatment as low as 500°2 is found to be effective for removal of impurities in the silicon.
Y-Ba-Cu-o fine powders were prepared by coprecipitating in the oxalate form from metal nitrates solution. The stoichiometry of metals in the precipitate was adjusted by systematic change of copper nitrate (or yttrium nitrate) concentration for a fixed concentration of barium nitrate in the ruactant. Approximately one micron size powders, with a uniform size distribution, were obtained by this new approach. The optimum condition for calcination and sintering was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).
The effects of SF6 and NF3 gas plasma treatments, and succesive rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatment for the recovery of modified silicon surface due to CHF3/C2F6 plasma have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS analyses have revealed that NF3 and SF6 plasma treatments are effective for the removal of residue layer. SIMS results show that penetrated impurities in the contaminated silicon substrate reduce through the additional RTA treatment. The effects of NF3, SF6 plasmas, and additional RTA treatments for the recovery of reactive ion etched silicon surface has been also studied by measuring the electrical performance of the silicon devices.
The modification of silicon surface due to reactive ion etching (RIE) using a CHF3/C2F6 plasma has been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A flat and uniform residue layer of about 40 angstrom in thickness has been observed in cross-sectional HRTEM work. The interface is sharply defined and smooth. Neither point defect cluster nor distinct planar defect has been found in substrate silicon lattice image. This is also confirmed by comparison scaled and energy shifted silicon surface peak of a control sample with the reactive ion etched sample using ion channeling RBS. NF3, C12, and SF6 plasma treatments have been carried out to remove the residue layer. Among them, NF3 treatment has been revealed to be the most effective. With 10 seconds exposure to NF3 plasma, fluorocarbon residue film decomposes, and the remaining fluorine mostly binds to silicon; the fluorine completely disappears after the subsequent wet cleaning.