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Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).
We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).
As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.
Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
To define the clinical and audiological features of normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, and to evaluate the role of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in tinnitus generation.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-two patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were compared with 29 patients without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, regarding clinical and audiological aspects.
The mean age of the study group subjects was significantly lower, and they experienced the kindling effect less frequently than the control group. The mean tinnitus handicap inventory score of the study group was considerably higher than that of the controls, although the difference was not statistically significant. The study group had significantly quieter tinnitus, and higher transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emission responses, compared with the control group.
Normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions have different clinical and audiological characteristics, compared with those without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Appropriate evaluation and treatment should be considered at an early stage in these patients.
There is a high incidence of pain following intravenous injection of propofol, and many studies have been conducted to find a way of reducing this. The administration of lidocaine and, recently, remifentanil has also been used for this purpose, but it is only partially effective. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of a combination of pretreatment with remifentanil and premixture of lidocaine with propofol and to compare either treatment alone during propofol injection in dorsal hand-veins.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial, we studied 141 adult patients scheduled for elective surgery. The combination of pretreatment of remifentanil (0.35 μg kg−1 min−1) and a premixture of lidocaine with propofol (mixture of propofol 1% and lidocaine 1% in a 10 : 1 ratio) was compared with either treatment alone in the prevention of pain on propofol injection. Pain was assessed on a four-point scale (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) during propofol injection. Patients in Group B received remifentanil (0.35 μg kg−1 min−1) 30 s before the injection of propofol.
The reduction of pain on propofol injection was similar in both the remifentanil pretreatment and lidocaine premixture groups (62.2% vs. 62.2%). Combination therapy was associated with a higher incidence of patients without pain (91.3%) than either treatment alone (P < 0.001). On analysing the injection pain scores, we found a significant reduction of the score in the remifentanil and lidocaine Group C compared with the lidocaine Group A (P < 0.001) and the remifentanil Group B (P < 0.001).
The combination of pretreatment of remifentanil and premixture of lidocaine with propofol was more effective in reducing the incidence of pain on injection of propofol than either treatment alone.
ZnO nanowires (NWs) were fabricated on Au coated sapphire (0001) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system in vacuum furnace with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. ZnO NWs have various size and shape with a substrate position inside a furnace, and their morphologic construction is reproducible. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the diameters of ZnO NWs ranged from 100 to 150 nm and the average length was greater than 3 μm. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the NWs show the near band-edge emissions and the deep-level green light emissions. The formation mechanism of the NWs is discussed.
A study of Si-doped and Mg-doped AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % and the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths at 340 nm and 290 nm are reported. By using grading super-lattices (SLs) before n-type AlGaN growth, surface roughness is much improved. Resistivity of 2.9×10-2 Ωcm and free electron concentrations of 2.9×10 cm- are achieved for n-type Al0.45Ga0.55N. The viability of effective p-type doping is defined by a minimum concentration of Mg required to offset the background impurities and, more importantly, a maximum limit above which inversion domains and structural defects start to nucleate, accompanied by a rapid degradation of electrical transport. Resistivity of 10 Ωcm and free hole concentrations above 1017 cm−3 are achieved for AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % within an optimum window of Mg incorporation. Output powers up to 1.5 mW from small area 340 nm LEDs (< 100 μm diameter) and 110 μW from 290 nm LEDs (100 μm diameter) directly off a planar chip have been achieved under DC condition. For large area encapsulated lamp (1×1 mm2 device area and 0.52 mm2 mesa area), output power of 79 mW from 340 nm LEDs and 8.5 mW from 290 nm LEDs are achieved under pulse mode (1kHz, 2% duty factor).
Synthesis of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was attempted by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH4/H2/NH3 gases on Ni/Cr-coated glass at low temperature. The synthesis was investigated by optical emission spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectroscopy. It was observed that MWNTs could be grown within a very restrictive range of gas compositions. An addition of a small amount of NH3 resulted in a decrease of C2H2, which can be used to estimate the amount of carbon sources in plasma for the growth of MWNTs, and an increase of CN and Hα radicals acting as etching species of carbon phases. These results show that carbon nanotubes can be grown only under an appropriate condition that the growing process surpasses the etching process. The optimum C2H2 /Hα ratio in a gas mixture was found to be between 1 and 3 for the MWNT growth at low temperature.
Secondary electron emission from a cathode material in AC PDP (Plasma Display Panel) is dominated by potential emission mechanism, which is sensitive to band structure of a protective layer. Therefore, the secondary electron emission property can be modified by a change in the energy band structure of the protective layer. Mg2-2xTixO2 films were prepared by e-beam evaporation method to be used as possible substitutes for the conventional MgO protective layer. The oxygen content in the films and in turn, the ratio of metal to oxygen gradually increased with the increasing TiO2 content in the starting materials. The pure MgO films exhibited the crystallinity with strong (111) orientation. The Mg2-2xTixO2 films, however, had the crystallinity with (311) preferred orientation. The stress relaxation, when the [TiO2/(MgO+TiO2)] ratio in the evaporation starting materials was 0.15, seems to be related to inhomogeneous film surface due to an excessive addition of TiO2 to MgO. When the [TiO2/(MgO+TiO2)] ratios of 0.1 and 0.15 were used, the deposited films exhibited the secondary electron emission yields improved by 50% compared to that of the conventional MgO protective layer, which resulted in reduction in discharge voltage by 12%.
A simple low-temperature excimer-laser doping process employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) and borosilicate glass (BSG) films as dopant sources is proposed in order to form source and drain regions for polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs). We have successfully controlled sheet resistance and dopant depth profile of doped poly-Si films by varying PH3/SiH4 flow ratio, laser energy density and the number of laser pulses. The penetration depth and the surface concentration of dopants were increased with increasing laser energy density and the number of laser pulses. The minimum sheet resistance of 450ω/ for phosphorus (P) doping and 1100ω/ for boron (B) doping were successfully obtained. Our experimental results show that the proposed laser-doping process is suitable for source/drain formation of poly-Si TFTs.
A phosphor screen which operates at low excitation energy must show good emission efficiency and sustain stabilities against high vacuum and high current density operation. In this study, low voltage phosphors suitable for FED applications were experimentally addressed and screened onto ITO-glass by the electrophoretic deposition which offers several advantages, including easy control of film thickness and high packing density. Process variables such as deposition rate, salt concentration, etc., in electrophoretic deposition method were optimized to achieve high quality of the screens. Correlations of process variables with particle size, surface morphology and luminescent properties of phosphors will be presented. Particularly, much attention was put on the optimization of phosphor screens for the maximal CL intensities and adhesion of particles over substrate when excited by field emitter arrays.
We have obtained continuous-wave laser operation at room temperature from a (Zn,Mg)(S,Se)-based Il-VI separate-confinement heterostructure where injection of holes into the p-type quaternary was achieved through the employment of a Zn(Se,Te) graded-bandgap contact. The laser devices exhibit threshold current densities of below 300 A/cm2 and voltages below 6 V. Issues related to the control of the growth of the quaternary (Zn,Mg)(S,Se) compound, and a proposal to further reducing the laser operating voltage will also be described.
In this study, the phase transformation and the surface and interface morphologies of TiSi2 formed on atomically clean Si substrates are investigated. 200Å Ti and 400A Si films on Si(111) have been co-deposited at elevated temperatures (400°C - 800°C) in ultrahigh vacuum. The phase transition of TiSi2 is characterized with using XRD. The results distinguish the formation of the C49 and C54 crystalline titanium silicides. The surface and interface morphologies of titanium silicides have been examined with SEM and TEM. A relatively smooth surface is observed for the C49 phase while a rough surface and interface are observed for the C54 phase. The islanding of the C54 phase becomes severe at high temperature (800°C). Islands of TiSi2 have been observed at temperatures above 700°C but no islands are observed at temperatures below 600°C. For films deposited at 400TC and 500°C, weak XRD peaks corresponding to TiSi were observed and TEM micrographs exhibited small crystalline regions of titanium silicide at the interface.
This study explores the nucleation and surface and interface morphology of TiSi2 films formed on Si (100) and (111) surfaces. Titanium suicide films were formed on atomically clean Si(111) and (100) surfaces by UHV deposition of Ti followed by in situ anneals. The TiSi2 formation process was characterized is itu using AES and LEED, and the interface structure was determined post preparation by HRTEM. The metastable C49 and stable C54 TiSi2 phases have been identified from Raman spectroscopy measurements. The islands were partially recessed into the substrate, and the shape and degree of recession was different for the islands on (111) and (100) substrates. On (111) substrates epitaxial islands were observed which exhibited different interface structures and epitaxial alignments. The contact angles of the islands were measured and the surface and interface energies of the different configurations were deduced. The mechanisms pertaining to island formation and interface morphology are described in terms of the wetting properties of a liquid-liquid system, with the effects of interface structures causing deviations from the model.
Striking progress in the development of II-VI semiconductor heterostructures, coupled with seminal advances in doping, has very recently led to the first demonstration of blue and blue/green diode lasers operating from cryogenic to room temperature. The active region in these devices was based on the (Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe multiple quantum wells (MQW) which had earlier been actively studied as a candidate for laser medium by optical pumping techniques. We report on the performance of such MQW diode lasers with emphasis on structural versatility in terms of preparation on both p-type and n-type GaAs substrates, and where sulfur is or is not incorporated for blue/green color lasing. In this work we have obtained pulsed, high power, high quantum efficiency laser emission up to near room temperature conditions. Efficient LED devices are described which operate in the blue (494nm) at room temperature.
Superlattices and quantum wells of Znl-xCdxSe/ZnSe,
and heterostructures based on ZnSe/CdSe digital alloys have been grown by
molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Their optical properties were studied with
particular emphasis on excitonic absorption and photopumped stimulated
emission. Excitonic absorption is easily observable up to 400 K, and is
characterized by extremely large absorption coefficients (α =
2×105cm−1). Optically pumped lasing action is
obtained at room temperature with a typical threshold intensity of 100
kW/cm2. The lasing mechanism in these II-VI quantum wells
appears to be quite different from that in the better studied III-V
materials: in our case, the onset of stimulated emission occurs
before the saturation of the excitonic absorption, and
the stimulated emission occurs at an energy lower than that
of the excitonic absorption.
Selectively absorbing properties of indium tin oxide(ITO) thin film were
characterized in UV-VIS-NIR wavelength regions. Sodium diffusion from glass
pane had a bad influences on the properties of ITO layers. So
silica-zirconia barrier layers were formed by sol gel dip coating. ITO films
on buffer layered glass pane were formed by sol gel dip coating.
Transmittance and reflectivity dependence on the thickness of barrier layer
and ITO coating layers were studied by measuring sheet resistance and
Transparency at 550 nm wavelegth and selective reflectivities were important
to apply to passive solar collectors. In single barrier layer and six-fold
ITO coated films, good selectivities were obtained. Homogeneity of indium
tin precursor coating solution was important. Atmosphere condition
(humidity, temperature), dip and drawing conditions were also additional
factors for uniformity of films.
In this study we investigate the formation mechanisms and morphology of TiSi2 formed by deposition of Ti on atomically clean silicon substrates. Ti films of 50–400 Å thickness were deposited in ultra-high vacuum on Si (111) wafers and annealed to temperatures between 500–900°C. Films were monitored in situ with AES and LEED, and post preparation characterization was accomplished with SEM, TEM and Raman scattering. The results show that for films of thickness ≤, 100 Å the C49 TiSi2 phase is stable over the entire 600-800°C temperature range. However, for films of 200-400 Å thickness, the C49 to C54 phase transition occurs at temperatures varying from 700 to 800°C dependent upon film thickness. The high temperature annealing results in flat interface structures, and island formation is observed for all films with the C54 structure. The interface morphology and the mechanisms of TiSi2 island and phase formation are discussed in terms of surface and bulk free energies considerations based on nucleation theory.