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To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.
Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.
Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.
A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.
Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
The fate of a contracting liquid filament depends on the Ohnesorge number (
), the initial aspect ratio (
) and surface perturbation. Generally, it is believed that there exists a critical aspect ratio
such that longer filaments break up and shorter ones recoil into a single drop. Through computational and experimental studies, we report a transitional regime for filaments with a broad range of intermediate aspect ratios, where there exist multiple
thresholds at which a novel breakup mode alternates with no-break mode. We develop a simple model considering the superposition of capillary waves, which can predict the complicated new phase diagram. In this model, the breakup results from constructive interference between the capillary waves that originate from the ends of the filament.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
We present 2.2 μm maps of four southern HII regions. Although each of these objects has been extensively studied at radio wavelengths with low spatial resolution, they have so far (with the exception of G333.6 – 0.2) received little attention in the infrared. As a first step towards understanding the structure of these objects we have therefore produced images of each in the K-band (2.2 μm) continuum.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.
Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene–environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent–child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25 years.
The sample included 1382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 years (mean = 17.8, s.d. = 0.69 years) and 25 years (mean = 25.0, s.d. = 0.90 years). Perceptions of parent–child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence.
We detected a gene–environment interaction at age 18 years, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent–child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25 years, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 years moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25 years. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association.
Gene–environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent–child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene–environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent–child relationship problems at age 18 years and EXT at age 25 years. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene–environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood.
To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years.
Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting.
Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA.
A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years.
Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0·001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months.
The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health. Worldwide, grow-out broilers are routinely vaccinated to prevent or lessen clinical manifestation of other infections. In this exploratory analysis we tested if details of a routine vaccination programme delivered to conventional grow-out broilers were associated with the burden of Salmonella in the flock as it progressed through its production cycle. None of the flocks studied were vaccinated against Salmonella or received a competitive exclusion product. The flocks were reared on conventional grow-out farms in southeastern USA, and sampled in a prospective field observational study. We observed significant associations between the content and design of a grow-out vaccination programme targeting other infections and the probability of detecting Salmonella in the broiler flock at different time points throughout the production cycle. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first field report of such associations.
Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion®-117) was first surface modified with atmospheric pressure UV photo-oxidation or low-pressure vacuum UV photo-oxidation downstream from an Ar microwave plasma, and then graft polymerized with acrylic acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the modified Nafion surface and poly(acrylic acid) grafted to the modified surface.
The epidemiology of hydatid disease in man in England and Wales, based on the data collected between 1981 and 1983 at the Hydatid Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Laboratory Service, is presented. The incidence of hydatid disease was 42 cases per annum, with 2 cases per million population occurring in Wales and 0·2 per million in England. The highest prevalence was in London amongst the immigrant population. The incidence in the indigenous population was 15·5 cases per annum, with 5·6 cases per million occurring in South Powys, parts of South Wales and Herefordshire. The population most at risk is the rural, farming community in that area, but the West Midlands is also an apparent focus of the disease.