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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether social rank (SR) and stability in the order of entrance to the milking parlour are associated with production traits. The study was conducted on a dairy farm where cows (n = 215) were managed in three groups according to lactation stage (group 1: 78 cows, 0–100 days in milk (DIM); group 2: 65 cows, 101–200 DIM and group 3: 72 cows, >200 DIM). SR was calculated from observations made from agonistic behaviour performed at the water troughs and feed bunks of each pen (n = 3). The animals were classified into three levels of dominance based on at least five clear interactions, resulting in: 61 dominant, 75 intermediate and 69 subordinate cows based on SR. Stability in the order of entry was estimated as the standard deviation of the entry position. SR was weakly correlated with milk yield, urea and protein content in milk. The results showed that stable cows had higher milk production and entered the milking parlour after the non-stable animals. Stability in the order of entry to the milking parlour was not affected by SR. Overall, the use of milking facilities appears to be associated with production traits rather than SR.
Annually resolved radiocarbon (14C) measurements on tree rings led to the discovery of abrupt variations in 14C production attributed to large solar flares. We present new results of annual and subannual 14C fluctuations in tree rings from a middle-latitude sequoia (California) and a high-latitude pine (Finland), analyzed for the period 1030–1080 CE, to trace a possible impact of the Crab supernova explosion, occurring during the Oort minimum of solar activity. Our results indicate an increase of Δ14C around 1054/55 CE, which we estimate is higher in magnitude than the cyclic variability due to solar activity at a 2σ significance level. The net signal appears to be synchronized in the studied locations. Several sources of this event are possible including γ-rays from the Crab supernova, an unusually weak solar minimum or a solar energetic particle incident. More data are needed to provide more insight into the origin of this 14C event.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
Technological and mathematical advances have provided opportunities to investigate new approaches for the holistic quantification of complex biological systems. One objective of these approaches, including the multi-inverse deterministic approach proposed in this paper, is to deepen the understanding of biological systems through the structural development of a useful, best-fitted inverse mechanistic model. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of a deterministic approach, that is, the multi-inverse approach (MIA), to yield meaningful quantitative nutritional information. To this end, a case study addressing the effect of diet composition on sheep weight was performed using data from a previous experiment on saccharina (a sugarcane byproduct), and an inverse deterministic model (named Paracoa) was developed. The MIA successfully revealed an increase in the final weight of sheep with an increase in the percentage of corn in the diet. Although the soluble fraction also increased with increasing corn percentage, the effective nonsoluble degradation increased fourfold, indicating that the increased weight gain resulted from the nonsoluble substrate. A profile likelihood analysis showed that the potential best-fitted model had identifiable parameters, and that the parameter relationships were affected by the type of data, number of parameters and model structure. It is necessary to apply the MIA to larger and/or more complex datasets to obtain a clearer understanding of its potential.
We conducted a matched-cohort study to assess mortality in schizophrenia and the relationship of mortality with comorbid somatic conditions and suicide attempts.
A full-population register-based prospective matched-cohort study was performed including all eligible patients with schizophrenia in Hungary between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2013. Control subjects were individually matched to patients with schizophrenia at a 5:1 ratio. The principal outcome measure was death due to any reason. A non-parametric approach was used for descriptive statistical purposes, the Kaplan-Meier model for survival analysis, and the Cox proportional-hazards regression model for inferential statistics.
Patients with schizophrenia (n = 65,169) had substantially higher risk of all-cause mortality than the control subjects (n = 325,435) (RR = 2.4; P < 0.0001). Comorbidities and suicide attempts were associated with significantly increased mortality in both groups. As compared to the controls, 20-year old males with schizophrenia had a shorter life expectancy by 11.5 years, and females by 13.7 years; the analogous numbers for 45-year old schizophrenics were 8.1 and 9.6 years, respectively.
A significant mortality gap – mainly associated with somatic comorbidities – was detected between patients with schizophrenia and individually matched controls. Improved medical training to address the disparity in mortality, and many other factors including lack of resources, access to and model of medical care, lifestyle, medication side effects, smoking, stigma, need for early intervention and adequate health care organization could help to better address the physical health needs of patients with schizophrenia.
Negative interactions between guanacos Lama guanicoe and ranchers have recently intensified in central Chile because guanacos are perceived to be competing with livestock for pasture resources. We examined this conservation conflict with a novel approach that considers ranchers' subjective theories, to better understand the origins of the conflict and to identify effective conservation measures based on the participants' explanations. Our findings indicate that ranchers see the source of the current problem in a shift towards increasingly arid conditions associated with climate change. We suggest the ranchers’ perceived problems are not only caused by interspecific resource competition arising from this climatic shift, but also by reported difficulties in negotiating with governmental institutions. This study adds to knowledge of human–wildlife interactions by exploring a further dimension of the complex ecological and social interactions taking place on livestock farms. We recommend identifying effective, acceptable solutions by considering and understanding the everyday knowledge of the conflict's protagonists and their potential for change.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction in nematode faecal egg count (FEC) in Pelibuey lambs segregated as resistant (RES), susceptible (SUS) and intermediate (INT) to gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty-nine weaned Pelibuey lambs, aged five months old, free of nematode infection, were used. Nine lambs were RES, six were SUS and 14 were INT lambs. The study consisted of two phases: in Phase 1 the lambs were infected experimentally with Haemonchus contortus. In Phase 2, the lambs were naturally infected by grazing. Faecal and blood samples were taken every week. The packed cell volume and total protein were quantified. The FEC value (FECmax) per lamb was recorded together with a natural reduction in FEC in the two phases. The data were analysed with a model of measures repeated over time. During Phase 1, the RES lambs showed the lowest FEC (1061 ± 1053) compared to the other groups (INT: 2385 ± 1794 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG); and SUS: 3958 ± 3037 EPG). However, in Phase 2 no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups of lambs (RES: 275 ± 498 EPG; SUS: 504 ± 1036 EPG; and INT: 603 ± 1061 EPG). At the end of Phase 1, the FEC of RES lambs was naturally reduced by 75.5% in respect to FECmax (p < 0.05), and at the end of Phase 2 the reduction in FEC was 90% in respect to FECmax (p > 0.05); the same behaviour was observed in RES and SUS lambs. It is concluded that the artificial infection in the lambs induced a more rapid immune response in RES than SUS lambs, and all lambs developed high acquired resistance by continuous infection.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
The increase of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere has led to the dilution of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration, but due to the costly instrumentation, the continuous atmospheric 14C/12C data is incomplete in developing countries, such as in Indonesia. These data give useful information about the level of local and regional fossil emissions. In this study, 14C AMS measurements of local vegetation and woody plant species samples have been used to estimate the rate of fossil-fuel-derived carbon in the plants, which fix the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Evergreen leaf samples were collected in September 2018 on the island of Bali in different, diverse districts in local and urban areas. The samples from the densely populated areas show observable fossil fuel emissions and show that the Δ14C level is close to zero ‰, similar to the natural level.
Deciduous tree leaf and grass samples were collected in Debrecen, the second largest city in Hungary. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of fossil fuel-derived carbon in urban vegetation. At the locations sampled, C3 and C4 plants close to roads were collected in September 2017. In total, 82 tree and grass leaf samples were gathered at 36 different sampling points all over the city of Debrecen. The radiocarbon (14C) results of the samples were compared to the local urban background atmospheric 14CO2 data to determine the percentage of the fossil fuel-derived carbon in the plants. Based on our results, the average fossil carbon content in the tree and grass leaf samples were 0.9 ± 1.2% and 2.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. The highest fossil carbon content was 9.6 ± 0.6% in a grass and 4.7 ± 0.7% in a tree leaf sample. It appears that the negative fossil carbon content results obtained at urban sampling areas reflect modern carbon emission, where radiocarbon content is higher than the corresponding local background, presumably due burning of recent wood containing bomb 14C in the suburbs as well as other possible sources such as litter decomposition or soil CO2 emission.
Radiocarbon (14C) analysis was performed on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) tree rings from Koriyama, Fukushima prefecture. Our primary aim was to detect any 14C release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on 11 March 2011. We also completed and assessed the 14C level in Japanese tree rings for the period of 1990–2014 because of the lack of environmental 14C results in the Japanese island that time. For this reason, we used a trajectory model to investigate the air mass forward and backward trajectories at the area of the power plant and sampling site. The modeling data show that the air masses mainly moved to the Pacific Ocean, both during March 2011 and during the growing season (March–September). During the period 1990–2014 there was no significant 14C excess in any of the samples, but there was a detectable Suess effect in almost every tree ring sample. The average fossil contribution was 0.83 ± 0.01% and the calculated anthropogenic component ratio, the 14C excess varied between +0.5 and –1.6%. The Δ14C value decreased from 150.0‰ to 9.5‰ from 1990–2014, which follows the decline of the 14C bomb peak, in addition to any detectable Suess effect.
An initial mixture of raw materials (batch) typically used for the manufacture of conventional soda-lime float glass was subjected to a mechanical activation process for 30 or 60 minutes in a planetary ball mill. An intensification of the chemical reactivity of the batch, which was directly related with the increase in the milling time, was observed. This accelerated the chemical reactions that took place during the batch melting process between sodium, calcium and magnesium carbonates and other components of the mixture, which happened at significantly lower temperatures with respect to the batch without mechanical activation. The heat of fusion of the batch, estimated using a methodology previously reported in the literature, indicated that the mechanical activation given to the initial mixture of raw materials decreased the energy consumed during the batch melting. This was also evidenced by a decrease in the temperature at which the release of CO2 ended, which was considerably larger than that previously reported in the literature based solely on the decrease in the particle size of a batch of similar composition achieved by dry sieving.
In June 2015, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis with 35 cases (23 probable and 12 laboratory-confirmed) occurred among 191 attendees of a residential rehabilitation holiday for paediatric organ transplant patients (n = 49) and their families at a hotel in Somogy county, Hungary. The overall attack rate was 18%. Most of the cases were transplanted children who experienced severe acute disease and required adjustment to their tacrolimus immunosuppression. A retrospective case-control study suggested an association between recreational water exposures and illness: cases were seven times more likely than controls to have swum in the children's pool (odds ratio 7.17; 95% confidence interval 2.9–17.2; P < 0.0001) and five times more likely to have used the jetted whirlpool (odds ratio 5.25; 95% confidence interval 2.1–13.1; P < 0.0001). This was the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Hungary and it is especially unfortunate that it affected vulnerable children who experienced severe symptoms. Cryptosporidium presents specific infection control difficulties in treated recreational water venues; the link to a whirlpool is unusual and highlights the importance of the age-appropriate use of these facilities and reminding users not to immerse their heads or swallow the water. Cryptosporidiosis is more commonly linked to children’ pools where improved bather hygiene and promoting exclusion of diarrhoea cases could help to avoid similar outbreaks.
The biocomponent ratio in liquid fuels as well as the usage of renewable resources for fuel consumption in the transport sector needs to be increased as a result of EU directive 2003/30/EC. Based on radiocarbon (14C) measurements, it should be relatively simple and fast to measure the weight percentage of the fossil and biological sources by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as recommended in the ASTM D 6866-12 and EN 16640 standards. In this study, a relatively easy and fast sample preparation and measurement method based on AMS measurements was developed at the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL) using reference samples from the Hungarian MOL Nyrt. oil company. Considering the recent EU regulation for mixing rates of liquid fuels in the transport sector (0.7–2% biofuel content) and the projected higher rates (2–10% biofuel content), the method is applicable to determine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and/or hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) derived proportions of fuel blends with a 1σ uncertainty better than±0.3% m/m.