The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-signaling pathway is very important in heavy metal toxicity. Induction of the antioxidative defense mechanism, comprising ROS-scavenging enzymes and metabolites, in plants after environmental uranium contamination has been insufficiently studied in the past. This study aimed to analyze oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana after uranium exposure. Seventeen-day-old seedlings were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM uranium for 3 days. After exposure to 100 μM uranium, a decrease in fresh weight for leaves and roots was observed, leaves colored anthocyanous and roots were stunted and yellow. To reveal the importance of oxidative stress in uranium toxicity, alterations in ROS-scavenging enzymes were studied at protein and transcriptional level. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) capacities increased in leaves and roots after exposure to 100 μM uranium but no differences were observed for catalase (CAT) capacities. Transcript levels of different SODs located at various cellular compartments were affected depending on the place of action. Gene expression of CAT in leaves and roots was also affected after uranium exposure. Results indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role in uranium toxicity but suggest that plant responses differ for leaves and roots.