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This study, conducted at the São Paulo State University feedlot, Dracena campus, Brazil, was designed as a completely randomized block with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of adding functional oils (FO) or sodium monensin (MON) on feedlot performance, carcass traits, feeding behaviour and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. Ninety-six 20-mo-old Nellore bulls (365.52 ± 39.19 kg) were randomly allocated to 24 pens (n = 4/pen), which were assigned to the treatments: (1) Control (no feed additives); (2) FO (500 ppm); (3) MON (27 ppm); and (4) MON + FO (27 + 500 ppm, respectively). Each treatment was replicated 6 times, and cattle were fed for 105 days. From 0 to 28 days on feed, cattle fed FO had lower dry matter intake (DMI) variation, sorted for medium particles and presented smaller papillae width. The feeding of FO did not negatively impact feedlot performance overall. When MON was added to the diet, cattle had lower DMI overall and 12th rib fat daily gain, and improved gain to feed ratio. The addition of MON to diets improved feedlot performance but reduced the rate of carcass fat deposition. The few effects observed when FO was added to diets were not sufficient to impact feedlot performance.
Although overhunting is amongst the main threats to biodiversity, wild meat is culturally and nutritionally important for many communities. Conservation initiatives should therefore address the drivers of hunting, rather than its practice alone. Here we gathered information from structured interviews with 68 local households to assess the drivers of hunting in a highly threatened Amazonian savannah complex, the Cerrado of Amapá in Brazil. We used regression models to evaluate the influence of socio-economic parameters and spatial variables on hunting prevalence and frequency. The only identified driver of hunting prevalence was forest cover, whereas five variables had significant effects on hunting frequency. The positive effect of forest cover and the negative effect of hunter's age on hunting frequency suggest that logistical and physical feasibility are important drivers of hunting frequency. Furthermore, we suggest that the negative effect of distance to urban centres may be related to the profitability of hunting. We base this on the negative effect of river length in the vicinity of households and per capita monthly income on hunting frequency, which corroborates the tendency of hunting frequency to decrease when alternatives to wild meat are more readily available. We argue that to reduce unsustainable hunting it is necessary both to raise awareness amongst local communities and involve them in the creation of management plans that conserve biodiversity and meet economic and social needs.
Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a potent bioactive fatty acids (FA) that causes milk fat depression in lactating animals. FA are transferred to milk directly through chylomicrons and indirectly by recycling through other tissues. The objective of this study was to characterise the kinetics of trans-10, cis-12 CLA transfer to plasma and milk after a single bolus infusion. Five multiparous mid-lactation cows received a single abomasal bolus infusion of an enriched CLA mixture providing 15 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and 15 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA over a 30-min period. Plasma concentration of trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA peaked 2 h post-bolus, reaching 0·29 and 0·38 % of total plasma FA, respectively, and returned to pre-bolus values at 72 h post-infusion. Milk trans-10, cis-12 CLA yield and concentration peaked 14 h post-bolus (0·25 g/h) and was not detectable in milk after 86 h. Total apparent transfer of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to milk was 41 %, with 73 % transferred to milk through the direct pool (chylomicrons) and the remaining 27 % transferred through the indirect pool (tissue recycling). Compartmental modelling revealed the existence of a transient unavailable pool of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in extravascular tissues represented primarily by the mammary gland, which slowly exchanges with an available pool for secretion in milk fat and transfer to milk. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12 CLA is predominantly transferred to milk through the direct pathway; however, how this CLA isomer is processed within the mammary gland requires further investigation.
The control of Anastrepha obliqua includes the sterilization of mass-reared insects grown in isolation in a constantly controlled environment. Through time, laboratory mass-reared colonies may produce flies with lower field performance. To recover the genetic variation and aptitude of mass-reared populations, wild insects are introduced into mass-reared colonies. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the host species from two localities influence the life history traits of A. obliqua. We collected flies as larvae from infested fruits of Spondias purpurea, S. mombin, Mangifera indica cv. ‘piña’, and M. indica cv. ‘coche’ from two localities in Chiapas, Mexico. There were significant differences in the mating competitiveness of males collected from mango cv. ‘coche’ compared with mass-reared males. There were no differences in the mating propensity between flies from the two localities, even in the number of matings, when weight was considered as a covariable. The mass-reared strain showed the earliest age at first oviposition. The locality affected the longevity and oviposition period, and these influenced the birth rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of population increase, mean generation time, and doubling time. According to the demographic parameters, the population of S. mombin would allow artificial colonization in less time, considering that it has a high reproduction rate starting at an early age. Even in the propensity test, it had the highest number of matings. However, males with greater sexual competitiveness and longevity for colonization corresponded to those collected from S. purpurea.
The use of fast and non-destructive techniques for identifying sugarcane varieties enables the development of automatic sorting systems, contributing towards improving pre-processing steps in the alcohol and sugar industries. In this context, principal component analysis (PCA), factorial discriminant analysis (FDA), stepwise forward discriminant analysis (SFDA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to classify four Brazilian sugarcane varieties based on visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectral reflectance measurements (450–1000 nm range) of stalks. All wavelengths contributed towards discriminating the sugarcane varieties, but the 600–750 nm range was most relevant. When evaluating PCA results considering the four sugarcane varieties, two of them overlapped and it was only possible to use classifiers of three varieties. Factorial discriminant analysis, PLS-DA and SFDA reached correct classifications of 0.81, 0.82 and 0.74, respectively, when considering the external validation data and the four sugarcane varieties evaluated. Results showed that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with discriminating methods is a promising tool for non-destructive and fast sugarcane variety classification, which can be used in the agro-food industry or directly in the field.
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks. Livers were excised to measure the fat content and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTyr) immunostaining; serum samples were also obtained to measure the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Data were analyzed using a non-repeated measures three-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences (P<0.05) regarding to the interaction among maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Results showed that the liver fat content of females from R mothers was higher than that of their male counterpart. Hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations were not affected by the interaction involving maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Otherwise, liver fat content was correlated with the hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations only in females. Thus, sucrose intake in adulthood increases fat content in the female but not in the male rat offspring of dams fed with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. This research emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet during pregnancy and the influence of the diet on the adult offspring.
The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.
The procyonid †Cyonasua is endemic to South America and recorded from the Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene. This paper studies the forelimb of †Cyonasua sp. (late Pliocene of Miramar, Argentina), using an ecomorphological approach to infer morphological adaptations linked to substrate preference and locomotory mode, as well as to grasping and digging ability. Twenty linear measurements of forelimb and pectoral girdle were taken from †Cyonasua sp. and a sample of 87 specimens of extant carnivoran families (Procyonidae, Mustelidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Canidae and Felidae). Raw values were transformed to minimise the effect of size. Morphological variation was explored by principal component analysis (PCA); substrate preference and locomotory mode were further analysed by multivariate analysis of variance (MAV) and discriminant analysis (DA); grasping and digging ability were analysed by DA. In the PCA morphospace, †Cyonasua sp. occupied a unique position, close to extant procyonids. DA classified it as non-specialised digger with poor grasping ability. The results lead to the interpretation of †Cyonasua sp. as having a moderately stabilised elbow joint with poor pronation–supination, although some climbing skills cannot be ruled out. Thus, †Cyonasua sp. could have had generalised habits, in agreement with reconstructed palaeoenvironmental conditions.
The response of vascular epiphyte communities following natural or human disturbance has been little studied. Over 5 y, we evaluated the post-stripping recolonization of vascular epiphytes in cloud forest. Vascular epiphytes were experimentally removed from branch and trunk plots (1 m in length) on five trees in two secondary cloud forest fragments in southern Mexico. Similarity between colonizer and established communities was compared in each fragment using a further five trees with no stripping. All seedlings were recorded yearly. Non-vascular epiphyte cover was estimated in each plot. The recolonization rate was very high; after 5 y, epiphyte density of the colonizer community (27.4 ± 6.8 individuals per segment) reached similar values to those of the established community (26.7 ± 3.3) in nearby trees. While similarity (composition and abundance) between the colonizer community and established community was high (81%), diversity accumulation curves indicated that the colonizer community presents a lower diversity of epiphytes (5.5 equivalent species) than the established community (11.4). Colonization of xerophytic bromeliads was high, while pteridophytes and orchids presented reduced recovery. The immediately surrounding source of propagules had a strong influence on recolonization. In both the colonizer and established communities, dominance rank was bromeliads > peperomias > pteridophytes. The results show that the recovery capacity of epiphytic vegetation in secondary forest is high, if propagule sources are close by. However, at 5 y after disturbance, it is unclear whether the colonizer community would present the same species composition as the established community or if it would give rise to a different community.
Glyphosate is now the most widely used herbicide; after years of frequent utilization, resistant weeds were selected, mainly due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops and no-tillage sowing system. Increasing difficulty in controlling Chloris polydactyla with glyphosate has been noticed in agricultural areas. Here, the susceptibility level of various C. polydactyla accessions from Brazil is examined. Two whole-plant studies were conducted to confirm the presence and extent of glyphosate susceptibility among accessions, which involved the application of seven glyphosate doses on four accessions. The four accessions showed different glyphosate susceptibilities. The “Matão” accession presented major tolerance for glyphosate compared to “Palotina” accessions. “Jaboticabal” plants showed an intermediary susceptibility. The resistance factor (RF) was 3.76 between the “Matão” and “Palotina” accessions. All biotypes died at 2,880 g ae ha−1 glyphosate.
In this study, rearing systems for, and the quality and demographic parameters of, a wild strain (WS) and two laboratory strains (LSs; one maintained on a torula yeast-casein diet and the other on a starter-gel diet) were determined for the American guava fruit fly Anastrepha striata (Schiner). No differences were observed between the LSs, but there were significant differences between the LSs and WSs. The LSs had the highest values for larval recovery, pupal weight, egg hatch, number of eggs/female per day, net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase. Therefore, during a short oviposition period, the LSs had a high fecundity. There were no differences in pupation at 24 h and larval weight between the WS and LS. However, the values of parameters, adult emergence, female and male life expectancies, age at first oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods and mean generation time were the highest in the WS.
In the present study, we analyse the effect of glycosylation in Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) antigens in antibody responses against the parasite in experimentally infected mice. It has been previously demonstrated that the mouse is a host of high compatibility with E. caproni and develops elevated responses of IgG, IgG1, IgG3 and IgM as a consequence of the infection, though the role of glycans in these responses remains unknown. To this purpose, the responses generated in mice against non-treated excretory/secretory antigens of E. caproni were compared with those observed after N-deglycosylation, O-deglycosylation and double deglycosylation of the antigens by indirect ELISA and western blot. Our results suggest that E. caproni-expressed glycans play a major role in the modulation of the immune responses. The results obtained indicate that IgG subclass responses generated in mice against E. caproni are essentially due to glycoproteins and may affect the Th1/Th2 biasing. The reactivity significantly decreased after any of the deglycosylation treatments and the N-glycans appears to be of greater importance than O-glycans. Interestingly, the IgM response increased after N-deglycosylation suggesting that carbohydrates may mask peptide antigens.
Controlling a walking biped robot is a challenging problem due to the robot's complex and uncertain dynamics. In order to tackle this problem, we propose a sliding mode controller based on a dynamic model that we obtained using the conformal geometric algebra (CGA) approach. An important contribution of this paper is the development of algorithms using the CGA framework. The CGA framework permits us to use lines, points, and other geometric entities to obtain the Lagrange equations of the system. The references for the joints of the robot were obtained in a bio-inspired way following the kinematics of a walking human body. The first and second derivatives of the reference signal were obtained via an exact robust differentiator based on a high-order sliding mode. We analyzed the performance of the proposed control schemes by using bio-inspired walking patterns and simulations.
Moderate alcohol intake has been related to lower mortality. However, alcohol use includes other dimensions beyond the amount of alcohol consumed. These aspects have not been sufficiently studied as a comprehensive entity. We aimed to test the relationship between an overall alcohol-drinking pattern and all-cause mortality. In a Mediterranean cohort study, we followed 18 394 Spanish participants up to 12 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was used to assess baseline alcohol intake. We developed a score assessing simultaneously seven aspects of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP). It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, wine preference, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. During the follow-up, 206 deaths were identified. For each 2-point increment in a 0–9 score of adherence to the MADP, we observed a 25 % relative risk reduction in mortality (95 % CI 11, 38 %). Within each category of alcohol intake, a higher adherence to the MADP was associated with lower mortality. Abstainers (excluded from the calculations of the MADP) exhibited higher mortality (hazard ratio 1·82, 95 % CI 1·14, 2·90) than participants highly adherent to the MADP. In conclusion, better adherence to an overall healthy alcohol-drinking pattern was associated with reduced mortality when compared with abstention or departure from this pattern. This reduction goes beyond the inverse association usually observed for moderate alcohol drinking. Even moderate drinkers can benefit from the advice to follow a traditional MADP.
Black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow–calf behaviours following parturition. Cow–calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 Nellore, 54 Guzerat, 20 Gyr and 26 Caracu cows. The calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow–calf pairs within, close or distant to the herd, the presence of vultures and the behaviour of cows and calves were recorded instantaneously, at 5-min interval. On average, vultures were present at 80% of the calving sites. The frequency of vultures present at calving sites was dependent on the years for the Nellore herd, increasing from 1998 to 2003. When vultures were present, the time that the cow was in contact with its calf decreased, and the percentage of time that the cow was standing still increased. Vultures were observed pecking cows and their neonates during 34.1% of all recordings. However, in only two cases pecking injuries were actually observed on calves that were noted to be very weak. The preliminary results suggest that although black vultures cannot be characterized as a predator of neonate calves, they sometimes attack neonate calves and their presence near the calving sites alter the behaviours of cows and calves.