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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
The electron density distribution maps for CaF2 and TiO2 (rutile) were obtained from profile fitting of powder diffraction data by a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) analysis. The resultant electron density maps show clearly the nature of the chemical bonding. In order to interpret the results, the nuclear density distribution was also obtained for rutile from powder neutron diffraction data. In the electron density map for rutile obtained by HEM analysis from the X-ray data, both apical and equatorial bonding can be seen. On the other hand, the nuclear density of rutile Is very simple and shows the thermal vibration of nuclei.
This paper is an interim report of our inferences about the hydrostatic structure of the Sun, following the first report of the GONG team in Science (Gough et al., 1996). That work confirms that the spherically averaged structure of the Sun is more or less in agreement with current standard solar models. However, there remain some significant deviations which we regard as important clues to the existence of dynamical phenomena which are not taken into account in standard solar modelling.
We report on Chandra observations of the black widow pulsar, PSR B1957+20. Evidence for a binary-phase dependence of the X-ray emission from the pulsar is found with a deep observation. The binary-phase resolved spectral analysis reveals non-thermal X-ray emission of PSR B1957+20, confirming the results of previous studies. This suggests that the X-rays are mostly due to intra-binary shock emission which is strongest when the pulsar wind interacts with the ablated material from the companion star. The geometry of the peak emission is determined in our study. The marginal softening of the spectrum of the non-thermal X-ray tail may indicate that particles injected at the termination shock is dominated by synchrotron cooling.
Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars which are young isolated neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields of >1014 Gauss. Their tremendous magnetic fields inferred from the spin parameters provide a huge energy reservoir to power the observed X-ray emission. High-energy emission above 0.3 MeV has never been detected despite intensive search. Here, we present the possible Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of γ-ray pulsations above 200 MeV from the AXP, 1E 2259+586, which puts the current theoretical models of γ-ray emission mechanisms of magnetars into challenge. We speculate that the high-energy γ-rays originate from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar.
Samples of Y1‐xCaxBa2Cu4O8 are prepared by means of a new high pressure technique employing the oxygen‐HIP. We find that the transition temperature increases with Ca content, and that Tc=90K is realized at x=0.1. These data are explained by the hole concentration, i.e. average charge per [Cu‐O] site.
KEY‐WORDS: YBa2Cu4O8, Ca‐substitution, Transition temperature, Hole concentration
An electric field sensitive moving hot spot appeared when a dc voltage over 5 V was applied at room temperature to GdBa2Cu3O7-δceramic thin rods under oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 atm (5 kPa to 100 kPa). The spot moved to the negative electrode, and the direction of movement could be reversed time after time by switching the positive and negative electrode. This is believed to be caused by electric field movement of oxygen ions, thereby generating an ionic current. The total current after the appearance of the hot spot was independent of the applied voltage for every oxygen partial pressure, PO2. However the current and spot velocity increased significantly with increasing PO2. By the best of the authors's knowledge this is the first report on the influence of the PO2 on the moving hot spot. The potential use of this phenomenon as an oxygen sensor will be shown.
A novel series of photocatalysts for an overall water splitting is reported. The catalysts have a layered perovskite type structure with a general formula of A2−xLa2Ti3−xNbxO10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; x = 0, 0.5, 1.0). The catalysts, except for the one with x=1.0, are spontaneously hydrated, and the band gap irradiation induced efficient evolution of H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from an aqueous alkaline solution when a proper amount of Ni loading was made. The reaction mechanism of water splitting on these catalysts is discussed on the bases of the structural study of the catalysts.
We characterized 14 trypanosome isolates from sylvatic mammals (9 from primates, 1 from sloth, 2 from anteaters and 2 from opossum) plus 2 human isolates of Brazilian Amazon. These isolates were proven to be Trypanosoma rangeli by detection of metacyclic trypomastigotes in the salivary glands of triatomines and by a specific PCR assay. Polymorphism determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed that most (12) of the Brazilian T. rangeli isolates from the Amazon differed from those of other geographical regions, thus constituting a new group of T. rangeli. Four Brazilian isolates clustered together with a previously described group (A) that was described as being composed of being isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. Isolates from Panama and El Salvador form another group. The isolate from Southern Brazil did not cluster to any of the above-mentioned groups. This is the first study that assesses the genetic relationship of a large number of isolates from wild mammals, especially from non-human primates. A randomly-amplified DNA fragment (Tra625) exclusive to T. rangeli was used to develop a PCR assay able to detect all T. rangeli groups.
To describe compliance with and the safety and prophylactic efficacy of zanamivir among patients at risk of developing influenza-related complications after exposure to both influenza A and B viruses.
Nonrandomized trial using both historical and contemporaneous controls from ward populations within the same facility.
A 547-bed urban hospital providing complex continuing care and rehabilitation.
Fifty patients on a single ward concomitantly exposed to both influenza A and B during an influenza outbreak.
All patients were screened for symptoms of influenza and nasopharyngeal swabs were sent for viral culture prior to treatment (two oral inhalations [2 × 5 mg] twice daily for 5 days) or prophylaxis (two oral inhalations [2 × 5 mg] once daily for 14 days) with zanamivir. Patient symptoms, compliance, and drug tolerance were monitored daily. Demographic data, comorbidities, vaccination status, and functional status (Katz score) were collected for all patients.
The mean age of the patients was 70.6 years (standard deviation, ± 16.4 years). Ninety-four percent had two or more comorbidities, 71% were dependent in two or more activities of daily living, 63% had been vaccinated for influenza, and 82% had received amantadine. Zanamivir was well tolerated, with 93% of the patients completing their course. The efficacy for preventing symptomatic infection was 82% and 91% (95% confidence interval, 62% to 98%) based on historical and contemporaneous controls, respectively.
These data suggest that zanamivir can be used safely and effectively as a prophylactic agent in the management of influenza outbreaks in a complex continuing care population with multiple comorbidities. (Infect Control Hosp Epidem 2002;23:604-608).
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