The effects of a liposomal preparation of lipophilic immunomodulator β-D-GlcNstearoyl-(1-4)-norMurNAc-L-Abu-D-isoGln (N-L18-norAbu-GMDP) were investigated on resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in neonatal kids. The liposomal preparation was administered subcutaneously or intranasally/orally (i.n./p.o.) twice at doses of 100 μg, 200 μg, or 1000 μg per kid pre-infection challenge. The treatment schemes were (i) 72 and 24 h pre-infection challenge, (ii) 24 h pre-infection challenge and 24 h post-infection challenge (oral inoculation with 1×107 oocysts of C. parvum in 5 ml of PBS). Administration of liposomal N-L18-norAbu-GMDP by i.n./p.o. route at the cumulative dose of 2000 μg per kid 72 and 24 h pre-infection challenge, lead to substantially increased clearance of coccidian parasites from various parts of the intestine. On the basis of histological examination, the distribution of cryptosporidia in the intestine and the severity of the infection, treated kids were classified on day 5 as having a strong reduction in infection in comparison to the control group (P<0·05). No cryptosporidia were found on the mucosal surface of treated kids by day 10, while the intestines of the control kids were still infected. All doses and routes of administration were judged effective with respect to suppression of cryptosporidia infections.