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The term ‘mood stabiliser’ is ill-defined and lacks clinical utility. We propose a framework to evaluate medications and effectively communicate their mood stabilising properties – their acute and prophylactic efficacy across the domains of mania and depression. The standardised framework provides a common definition to facilitate research and clinical practice.
Declaration of interest
The Treatment Algorithm Group (TAG) was supported logistically by Servier who provided financial assistance with travel and accommodation for those TAG members travelling interstate or overseas to attend the meeting in Sydney (held on 18 November 2017). None of the committee were paid to participate in this project and Servier have not had any input into the content, format or outputs from this project.
Children with poor mental health often struggle at school. The relationship between childhood psychiatric disorder and exclusion from school has not been frequently studied, but both are associated with poor adult outcomes. We undertook a secondary analysis of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys from 2004 and its follow-up in 2007 to explore the relationship between exclusion from school and psychopathology. We predicted poorer mental health among those excluded.
Psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while psychiatric disorder was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment and applying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria. Exclusion from school and socio-demographic characteristics were reported by parents. Multi-variable regression models were used to examine the impact of individual factors on exclusion from school or psychological distress.
Exclusion from school was commoner among boys, secondary school pupils and those living in socio-economically deprived circumstances. Poor general health and learning disability among children and poor parental mental health were also associated with exclusion. There were consistently high levels of psychological distress among those who had experienced exclusion at baseline and follow-up.
We detected a bi-directional association between psychological distress and exclusion. Efforts to identify and support children who struggle with school may therefore prevent both future exclusion and future psychiatric disorder.
Clover inclusion may increase the sustainability of certain low-maintenance turfgrasses. However, selective weed control within mixed turfgrass–clover swards proves problematic because of clover susceptibility to herbicides. Research was conducted to identify common turf herbicides that are tolerated by three Trifolium species, including white clover, ball clover, and small hop clover, within low-maintenance turfgrass. Leaf and flower density, as well as plant height, were measured 4 wk after treatment as indicators of clover response to 14 herbicides. The three Trifolium spp. were moderately tolerant of bentazon (< 35% decrease in leaf density, height, or flowering). Simazine was well tolerated by white clover (< 5% decrease in all response variables), yet moderate injury to ball clover and small hop clover was observed (> 32% decrease in leaf density and > 27% decrease in flower density). Pronamide was well tolerated by white and ball clovers, with no effect on measured response variables; however, pronamide decreased small hop clover height and flower density (38 and 42%, respectively). Imazethapyr and imazamox were moderately well tolerated by white clover and small hop clover (< 39% decrease by all response variables), yet ball clover may be more susceptible to these herbicides than was anticipated based on previously reported tolerance. The herbicides 2,4-DB, halosulfuron, and metribuzin were well tolerated by white clover, with no effect on measured response variables; however, results suggest ball and small hop clovers were less tolerant. Clopyralid, 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazaquin, metsulfuron-methyl, and nicosulfuron resulted in varying degrees of injury across clover species and response variables, but, in general, these herbicides may not be viable options when attempting to maintain any of the three clover species tested. Further research is needed to quantify long-term effects of herbicide application on sward composition and clover succession.
We sought to determine the frequency with which hospice and palliative social workers encounter patients, family caregivers, and other clients at risk of suicide, and to discover the extent to which hospice and palliative social workers feel prepared to address issues related to suicide in their professional practice.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of hospice and palliative social workers, recruiting a convenience sample of volunteer respondents through advertisements at professional conferences and listservs, and via social media accounts associated with national organizations, state hospice and palliative care associations, and individual healthcare professionals.
Most respondents reported having worked with patients, family caregivers, or other clients who had exhibited warning signs of suicide during the previous year. Fewer respondents indicated that they had worked with patients and family members who had attempted or died by suicide. While the majority of respondents believed they possessed sufficient knowledge and skills to intervene effectively with individuals at risk of suicide, they indicated that additional education on this topic would be valuable for their professional practice.
Significance of results:
These study results suggest that suicide-related competencies are important in the practice of hospice and palliative social work. Future education and training efforts should include skill development in addition to knowledge building.
A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g. drift-wave turbulence driven by ion temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating
flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. It is found that it is possible to construct a consistent theory in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution function, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wavenumber space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also in contrast with the linear problem, in which it occurs at the finite rate equal to the Landau damping rate). The ability of the free energy to stay in the low velocity moments of the distribution function is facilitated by the ‘anti-phase-mixing’ effect, whose presence in the nonlinear system is due to the stochastic version of the plasma echo (the advecting velocity couples the phase-mixing and anti-phase-mixing perturbations). The partitioning of the wavenumber space between the (energetically dominant) region where this is the case and the region where linear phase mixing wins its competition with nonlinear advection is governed by the ‘critical balance’ between linear and nonlinear time scales (which for high Hermite moments splits into two thresholds, one demarcating the wavenumber region where phase mixing predominates, the other where plasma echo does).
Establishing an evidence-based diagnostic system informed by the biological (dys)function of the nervous system is a major priority in psychiatry. This objective, however, is often challenged by difficulties in identifying homogeneous clinical populations. Melancholia, a biological and endogenous subtype for major depressive disorder, presents a canonical test case in the search of biological nosology.
We employed a unique combination of naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms – resting state and free viewing of emotionally salient films – to search for neurobiological signatures of depression subtypes. fMRI data were acquired from 57 participants; 17 patients with melancholia, 17 patients with (non-melancholic) major depression and 23 matched healthy controls.
Patients with melancholia showed a prominent loss of functional connectivity in hub regions [including ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior temporal gyrus] during natural viewing, and in the posterior cingulate cortex while at rest. Of note, the default mode network showed diminished reactivity to external stimuli in melancholia, which correlated with the severity of anhedonia. Intriguingly, the subgenual ACC, a potential target for treating depression with deep brain stimulation (DBS), showed divergent changes between the two depression subtypes, with increased connectivity in the non-melancholic and decreased connectivity in the melancholic subsets.
These findings reveal neurobiological changes specific to depression subtypes during ecologically valid behavioural conditions, underscoring the critical need to respect differing neurobiological processes underpinning depressive subtypes.
Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP) is a synthetic auxin herbicide used for broadleaf
weed control in pasture and rangeland. The tolerance and fate of AMCP within
pertinent grass species is not well understood. Research was conducted to
establish the tolerance of four grass species to AMCP application and
observe their absorption, translocation, and metabolism. Results indicate
that tall fescue is the most tolerant of AMCP at rates required for weed
control. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are marginally tolerant, and cogongrass
is the most sensitive. Tall fescue and bahiagrass absorbed more AMCP than
bermudagrass and cogongrass, but cogongrass absorption is the most rapid and
complete within 2 days after treatment (DAT). Cogongrass and bermudagrass
translocated the least amount out of the target area, whereas bahiagrass and
tall fescue translocated the most. Radioisotope imaging revealed that tall
fescue may sequester absorbed AMCP in leaf tips. This sequestering may be
the basis of the greater tolerance to AMCP by tall fescue relative to the
other species evaluated. No metabolism of AMCP was detected in any grass
species out to 42 DAT.
Intentional mummification is a practice usually associated with early Egyptian or Peruvian societies, but new evidence suggests that it may also have been widespread in prehistoric Britain, and possibly in Europe more generally. Following the discovery of mummified Bronze Age skeletons at the site of Cladh Hallan in the Western Isles of Scotland, a method of analysis has been developed that can consistently identify previously mummified skeletons. The results demonstrate that Bronze Age populations throughout Britain practised mummification on a proportion of their dead, although the criteria for selection are not yet certain.
We study Landau damping in the 1+1D Vlasov–Poisson system using a Fourier–Hermite spectral representation. We describe the propagation of free energy in Fourier–Hermite phase space using forwards and backwards propagating Hermite modes recently developed for gyrokinetic theory. We derive a free energy equation that relates the change in the electric field to the net Hermite flux out of the zeroth Hermite mode. In linear Landau damping, decay in the electric field corresponds to forward propagating Hermite modes; in nonlinear damping, the initial decay is followed by a growth phase characterized by the generation of backwards propagating Hermite modes by the nonlinear term. The free energy content of the backwards propagating modes increases exponentially until balancing that of the forward propagating modes. Thereafter there is no systematic net Hermite flux, so the electric field cannot decay and the nonlinearity effectively suppresses Landau damping. These simulations are performed using the fully-spectral 5D gyrokinetics code SpectroGK, modified to solve the 1+1D Vlasov–Poisson system. This captures Landau damping via Hou–Li filtering in velocity space. Therefore the code is applicable even in regimes where phase mixing and filamentation are dominant.
This research implements a recently proposed framework for meander migration, in order to explore the coevolution of planform and channel width in a freely meandering river. In the model described here, width evolution is coupled to channel migration through two submodels, one describing bank erosion and the other describing bank deposition. Bank erosion is modelled as erosion of purely non-cohesive bank material damped by natural armouring due to basal slump blocks, and bank deposition is modelled in terms of a flow-dependent rate of vegetal encroachment. While these two submodels are specified independently, the two banks interact through the medium of the intervening channel; the morphodynamics of which is described by a fully nonlinear depth-averaged morphodynamics model. Since both banks are allowed to migrate independently, channel width is free to vary locally as a result of differential bank migration. Through a series of numerical runs, we demonstrate coevolution of local curvature, width and streamwise slope as the channel migrates over time. The correlation between the local curvature, width and bed elevation is characterized, and the nature of this relationship is explored by varying the governing parameters. The results show that, by varying a parameter representing the ratio between a reference bank erosion rate and a reference bank deposition rate, the model is able to reproduce the broad range of river width–curvature correlations observed in nature. This research represents a step towards providing general metrics for predicting width variation patterns in river systems.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
In the Preface to the first edition, we commented on the benefits and drawbacks of interdisciplinary research; the contributions of specialists to advance our understanding and the difficulty for the non-specialist in understanding these advances. We were thinking particularly about the mechanics of the circulation and the contributions that had been made by engineers, physicists and mathematicians working in collaboration with physiologists and medical doctors. Our goal in writing the book was to alleviate the problem of understanding these advances by providing an introductory text on the mechanics of the circulation that was accessible to physiologists and medical practitioners.
The three decades since the book was published have seen an explosive growth in research on the cardiovascular system. In 1978, bioengineering did not exist as a separate academic discipline and the field of cardiovascular mechanics was relatively small, although it had a long and distinguished history extending over more than three centuries. Today, bioengineering is widely recognized as an academic discipline and interdisciplinary research is generally accepted as essential to progress.
Our understanding of the circulation is immeasurably greater today than it was in 1978, but many problems remain unsolved and cardiovascular disease is still the largest single cause of death world-wide. Again, however, these advances have brought increased difficulty in understanding. We believe that the need for an introductory text on the mechanics of the circulation that is accessible to the non-specialist is even greater now than it was when the book was first published.
We saw in the last chapter that in the large arteries blood may be treated as a homogeneous fluid and its particulate structure ignored. Furthermore, fluid inertia is a dominant feature of the flow in the larger vessels since the Reynolds numbers are large. The fluid mechanical reasons for treating the circulation in two separate parts, with a division at vessels of 100μm diameter, were also given in that chapter. In the microcirculation, which comprises the smallest arteries and veins and the capillaries, conditions are very different from those in large arteries and it is appropriate to consider the flow properties within them separately.
First, it is no longer possible to think of the blood as a homogeneous fluid; it is essential to treat it as a suspension of red cells and other formed elements in plasma. As will be seen later in the chapter, this comes about because even the largest vessels of the microcirculation are only approximately 15 red cells in diameter. Second, in all vessels, viscous rather than inertial effects dominate and the Reynolds numbers are very low; typical Reynolds numbers in 100μm arteries are about 0.5 and in a 10μm capillary they fall to less than 0.005 (see Table I).
In larger arteries, the Womersley parameter α (p. 60) is always considerably greater than unity. In the microcirculation, however, α is very small; in the dog (assuming a heart rate of 2Hz) it is approximately 0.08 in 100μm vessels and falls to approximately 0.005 in capillaries. This means that everywhere in these small vessels the flow is in phase with the local pressure gradient and conditions are quasi-steady.
When blood is ejected from the heart during systole, the pressure in the aorta and other large arteries rises, and then during diastole it falls again. The pressure rise is associated with outward motions of the walls, and they subsequently return because they are elastic. This process occurs during every cardiac cycle, and it can be seen that elements of the vessel walls oscillate cyclically, with a frequency of oscillation equal to that of the heartbeat. The blood, too, flows in a pulsatile manner, in response to the pulsatile pressure. In fact, as we shall see in Chapter 12, a pressure wave is propagated down the arterial tree. It is therefore appropriate in this chapter to consider the mechanics of pulsatile phenomena in general, and the propagation of waves in particular.
Let us examine first the oscillatory motion of a single particle. Suppose that the particle can be in equilibrium at a certain point, say P, but when it is disturbed from this position, it experiences a restoring force, tending to return it to P. There are many examples of this situation, as when a particle is hanging from a string and is displaced sideways (a simple pendulum) or when the string is elastic and the particle is pulled down below its equilibrium position. In cases like these, the restoring force increases as the distance by which the particle is displaced from P increases. In fact, for sufficiently small displacements, the restoring force is approximately proportional to the distance from P (see p. 124). If the particle is displaced and then released, it will return towards P, but will overshoot because of its inertia.
It soon becomes clear to any student of physiology that there are many systems of units and forms of terminology. For example, respiratory physiologists measure pressures in centimetres of water and cardiovascular physiologists use millimetres of mercury. As the study of any single branch of physiology becomes increasingly sophisticated, more and more use is made of other disciplines in science. As a result, the range of units has increased to such an extent that conversion between systems takes time and can easily cause confusion and mistakes.
We see also frequent misuse of terminology which can only confuse; for example, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood is often referred to as the ‘oxygen tension’, when in reality tension means a tensile force and is hardly the appropriate word to use.
In order to combat a situation which is deteriorating, considerable effort is being made to reorganize and unify the systems of nomenclature and units as employed in physiology. For any agreed procedure to be of value, it must be self-consistent and widely applicable. Therefore, it has to be based upon a proper understanding of mathematical principles and the laws of physics.
The system of units which has been adopted throughout the world and is now in use in most branches of science is known as the Système International or SI (see p. 28).
The study of the mechanics of blood flow in veins has been far less extensive than that of blood flow in arteries. However, virtually all the blood ejected by the left ventricle must return to the right atrium through the veins; they normally contain almost 80% of the total volume of blood in the systemic vascular system and have an important controlling influence on cardiac output. It is therefore important to understand their mechanics.
The venous system resembles the arterial system, in that it consists of a tree-like network of branching vessels; the main trunks are the venae cavae, which come together and lead into the heart. However, it is fundamentally different from the arterial system in several respects:
(1) As can be seen from Fig. 12.11, p. 257, the pressure in a vein is normally much lower than that in an artery at the same level, and may be less than atmospheric (for example in veins above the level of the heart).
(2) The vessels have thinner walls and their distensibility varies over a much wider range than that of arteries at physiological pressures.
(3) The blood flows from the periphery towards the heart, and the flow rate into a vein is determined by the arterio-venous pressure difference and the resistance of the intervening microcirculation.
(4) Many veins contain valves which prevent backflow.
The mammalian heart consists of two pumps, connected to each other in series, so that the output from each is eventually applied as the input to the other. Since they are developed, embryologically, by differentiation of a single structure, it is not surprising that the pumps are intimately connected anatomically, and that they share a number of features. These include a single excitation mechanism, so that they act almost synchronously; a unique type of muscle, cardiac muscle, which has an anatomical structure similar to skeletal muscle, but some important functional differences; and a similar arrangement of chambers and one-way valves. Not surprisingly, the assumption has often been made that the function of the two pumps will also be similar. Thus it has become common practice to examine the properties of one pump, usually the left, and to assume that the results apply to the other also. This may often be unjustified, particularly in studies of cardiac mechanics, with the result that our knowledge of the mechanics of the right heart and the pulmonary circulation remains very incomplete. It must also be remembered that the scope for experiments on the human heart is very limited, and we must rely heavily on experimental information from animal studies. Thus the descriptions which follow apply primarily to the dog heart.
Many factors which affect the performance of the heart are not our concern in this chapter, among the most important being the wide range of reflexes which act on the heart. For example, nerve endings in the aortic wall and carotid sinus are sensitive to stretch, and thus to changes in arterial pressure.