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We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
Recent work suggests that heavy use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia-like psychosis. However, there is a dearth of experimental studies of the effects of the constituents of cannabis, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In a study of intravenous (i.v.) synthetic THC in healthy humans, we aimed to study the relationship of the psychotic symptoms induced by THC to the consequent anxiety and neuropsychological impairment.
Twenty-two healthy adult males aged 28±6 years (mean±s.d.) participated in experimental sessions in which i.v. THC (2.5 mg) was administered under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Self-rated and investigator-rated measurements of mood and psychosis [the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE)] were made at baseline and at 30, 80 and 120 min post-injection. Participants also completed a series of neuropsychological tests [the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT), Digit Span, Verbal Fluency and the Baddeley Reasoning Task] within 45 min of injection.
THC-induced positive psychotic symptoms, and participant- and investigator-rated measurements of these were highly correlated. Participants showed an increase in anxiety ratings but there was no relationship between either self- or investigator-rated positive psychotic symptoms and anxiety. THC also impaired neuropsychological performance but once again there was no relationship between THC-induced positive psychotic symptoms and deficits in working memory/executive function.
These findings confirm that THC can induce a transient, acute psychotic reaction in psychiatrically well individuals. The extent of the psychotic reaction was not related to the degree of anxiety or cognitive impairment.
The large shift in voting in the House of Commons on repeal of the Corn Laws in the 1842-46 period has led many analysts to focus on the political calculus of Peel's government and on the role of ideology in shaping this policy change. While the claim that ideology was an independent source of change lacks substantiation, the claims about Peel's changing political calculus are an important part of a larger explanation for the change in voting. However, showing that Peel had his own reasons for preferring repeal is not the same as showing why Peel was successful. An analysis of the political and economic interests of constituents and Members of Parliament reveals that these interests were systematically related to Members' votes on repeal. Repeal is thus more appropriately understood as the result of the interaction of Peel's immediate objectives with a more congenial political environment that had arisen due to the changes induced by British economic development.
Nine patients diagnosed as having acute schizophrenic psychosis were treated with chlorpromazine. Their clinical response to drug treatment was measured by the use of a clinical rating scale developed from the Present State Examination, and a nurses rating scale. Plasma levels of chlorpromazine (CPZ), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine (7OHCPZ), monodesmethylchlorpromazine (NOR1CPZ) and chlorpromazine sulphoxide (SOCPZ), were monitored during the period of hospital treatment. Correlations were made between the increase in plasma levels of drug or metabolites and improvement in the different PSE scores. These showed that the most significant correlations occurred when symptoms with high diagnostic significance for schizophrenia (Group 1) and symptoms rating perceptual disorders (P) were correlated with plasma 7OHCPZ levels in plasma samples taken before the first morning dose of CPZ. The ratio of 7OHCPZ to CPZ in these samples increased significantly as clinical ratings improved, this correlation being most highly significant against the Group 1 and P scores. The ratio of 7OHPCZ to SOCPZ increased significantly only in the case of Group 1 and P scores. This indicates a preferential shift of CPZ metabolism towards the formation of the active 7OHCPZ during the period of clinical improvement.
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