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In this paper, a novel single-cavity triangular substrate-integrated waveguide (TSIW) dual-band filter loading a complementary triangular split ring resonator (CTSRR) is proposed, which has three transmission zeros (TZs) in the stopband in total. The dual-band response is achieved by the CTSRR and the degenerate modes of the TSIW cavity. In order to control the TZs, we propose two adjustment techniques, shift feeding technique and adding via perturbation. In addition, the CTSRR etched on the surface can produce a new TZ in the upper first-passband. Finally, a dual-band filter with three TZs is simulated, fabricated, and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and measured ones.
The origins and phylogeny of different sheep breeds has been widely studied using polymorphisms within the mitochondrial hypervariable region. However, little is known about the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and phylogeny based on mtDNA protein-coding genes. In this study, we assessed the phylogeny and copy number of the mtDNA in eight indigenous (population size, n=184) and three introduced (n=66) sheep breeds in China based on five mitochondrial coding genes (COX1, COX2, ATP8, ATP6 and COX3). The mean haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.944 and 0.00322, respectively. We identified a correlation between the lineages distribution and the genetic distance, whereby Valley-type Tibetan sheep had a closer genetic relationship with introduced breeds (Dorper, Poll Dorset and Suffolk) than with other indigenous breeds. Similarly, the Median-joining profile of haplotypes revealed the distribution of clusters according to genetic differences. Moreover, copy number analysis based on the five mitochondrial coding genes was affected by the genetic distance combining with genetic phylogeny; we also identified obvious non-synonymous mutations in ATP6 between the different levels of copy number expressions. These results imply that differences in mitogenomic compositions resulting from geographical separation lead to differences in mitochondrial function.
Alnico alloys have long been used as strong permanent magnets because of their ferromagnetism and high coercivity. Understanding their structural details allows for better prediction of the resulting magnetic properties. However, quantitative three-dimensional characterization of the phase separation in these alloys is still challenged by the spatial quantification of nanoscale phases. Herein, we apply a dual tomography approach, where correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) tomography and atom probe tomography (APT) are used to investigate the initial phase separation process of an alnico 8 alloy upon non-magnetic annealing. STEM-EDS tomography provides information on the morphology and volume fractions of Fe–Co-rich and Νi–Al-rich phases after spinodal decomposition in addition to quantitative information of the composition of a nanoscale volume. Subsequent analysis of a portion of the same specimen by APT offers quantitative chemical information of each phase at the sub-nanometer scale. Furthermore, APT reveals small, 2–4 nm Fe-rich α1 phases that are nucleated in the Ni-rich α2 matrix. From this information, we show that phase separation of the alnico 8 alloy consists of both spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth processes. The complementary benefits and challenges associated with correlative STEM-EDS and APT are discussed.
ET And is a binary system with a B9 Si star as the main component (Porb = 48.308d, e=0.46). Controversial claims in the literature concerning pulsation with periods ranging from few minutes to few hours and with variable amplitudes indicated a challenging target and motivated us to organize several photometric and spectroscopic observing campaigns. The problem with pulsation of ET And is that Teff and log g put this star in the cool domain of Slowly Pulsating B-type (SPB) stars, but the pulsation periods would be too short by a factor of about four, relatively to the shortest hitherto known periods for SPB stars.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets. In total, forty piglets weaned at 21–26 d of age were assigned to one of the five groups that were provided basic diet (control group) or diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae expressing either empty-vector (INVSc1(EV) group), tagged EGF (T-EGF) (INVSc1-TE(−) group), extracellular EGF (EE-EGF) (INVSc1-EE(+) group) or intracellular EGF (IE-EGF) (INVSc1-IE(+) group). All treatments were delivered as 60·00 μg/kg body weight EGF/d. On 0, 7, 14 and 21 d, eight piglets per treatment were sacrificed to analyse the morphology, activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes, as well as Ig levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) in duodenal mucosa. The results showed significant improvement on 7, 14 and 21 d, with respect to average daily gain (P<0·05), mucosa morphology (villus height and crypt depth) (P<0·05), Ig levels (P<0·01), activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes (creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and sucrase) (P<0·05) and the mRNA expression of EGF-receptor (P<0·01) in NVSc1-TE(−), INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-IE(+) groups compared with control and INVSc1(EV) groups. In addition, a trend was observed in which the INVSc1-IE(+) group showed an improvement in Ig levels (0·05<P<0·10), mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes and EGF-receptor (P<0·05) compared with NVSc1-TE(−) and INVSc1-EE(+) groups. These results indicate that supplementing recombinant EGF-expressing S. cerevisiae to the diet of weaned piglets enhanced duodenal development. Moreover, biological activity (Ig levels, mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes and EGF-receptor) of IE-EGF was better than either EE-EGF or T-EGF.
Establishing an evidence-based diagnostic system informed by the biological (dys)function of the nervous system is a major priority in psychiatry. This objective, however, is often challenged by difficulties in identifying homogeneous clinical populations. Melancholia, a biological and endogenous subtype for major depressive disorder, presents a canonical test case in the search of biological nosology.
We employed a unique combination of naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms – resting state and free viewing of emotionally salient films – to search for neurobiological signatures of depression subtypes. fMRI data were acquired from 57 participants; 17 patients with melancholia, 17 patients with (non-melancholic) major depression and 23 matched healthy controls.
Patients with melancholia showed a prominent loss of functional connectivity in hub regions [including ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior temporal gyrus] during natural viewing, and in the posterior cingulate cortex while at rest. Of note, the default mode network showed diminished reactivity to external stimuli in melancholia, which correlated with the severity of anhedonia. Intriguingly, the subgenual ACC, a potential target for treating depression with deep brain stimulation (DBS), showed divergent changes between the two depression subtypes, with increased connectivity in the non-melancholic and decreased connectivity in the melancholic subsets.
These findings reveal neurobiological changes specific to depression subtypes during ecologically valid behavioural conditions, underscoring the critical need to respect differing neurobiological processes underpinning depressive subtypes.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
Mycoplasma infections are most frequently associated with disease in the urogenital or respiratory tracts and, in most cases, mycoplasmas infect the host persistently. In HIV-infected individuals the prevalence and role of genital mycoplasmas has not been well studied. To investigate the six species of Mycoplasma and the risk factors for infection in Jiangsu province, first-void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiological questionnaires were administered after informed consent. A total of 1541 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of six Mycoplasma species were: Ureaplasma urealyticum (26·7%), Mycoplasma hominis (25·3%), M. fermentans (5·1%), M. genitalium (20·1%), M. penetrans (1·6%) and M. pirum (15·4%). The Mycoplasma infection rate in the unmarried group was lower than that of the married, divorced and widowed groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·432, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·077–1·904, P < 0·05]. The patients who refused highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had a much higher risk of Mucoplasma infection (aOR 1·357, 95% CI 1·097–1·679, P < 0·05). Otherwise, a high CD4+ T cell count was a protective factor against Mycoplasma infection (aOR 0·576, 95% CI 0·460–0·719, P < 0·05). Further research will be required to confirm a causal relationship and to identify risk factors for Mycoplasma infection in HIV/AIDS populations.
Co-infections of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and HIV/AIDS is rare. We report four CE cases that were HIV positive. Three out of the four patients underwent a surgical operation to remove the hydatid cysts in their livers. The operation confirmed that in two of the cases their cysts had ruptured. These patients were given 3 months of albendazole after the operation. Follow-up showed they were remarkably improved in term of their health, although they were still HIV antibody positive 6 months after surgical treatment. Interestingly, the treatment remarkably increased their CD4+ cell population. We showed that surgery is suitable for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HIV/AIDS co-infection.
To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 9 affect the susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission, we genotyped 399 neonates for TLR3 (c.1377C/T) [rs3775290] and TLR9 (G2848A) [rs352140] using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). A femoral venous blood sample was obtained from these subjects. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay kits and hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) levels were determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR assay. Our results showed that when adjusting for maternal HBeAg, maternal HBV DNA and mode of delivery, allele ‘T’ for SNP c.1377C/T was significantly associated with HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility [adjusted OR (aOR) 0·55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·34–0·91, P = 0·020] and the TT genotype decreased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission (aOR 0·28, 95% CI 0·09–0·91, P = 0·033). Allele ‘A’ for SNP G2848A was significantly associated with HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility (aOR 0·62, 95% CI 0·39–1·00, P = 0·048) and the GA genotype protected neonates from HBV intrauterine transmission (aOR 0·45, 95% CI 0·22–0·93, P = 0·031). The TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR9 (G2848A) polymorphisms may be relevant for HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility, although the reduction in risk to HBV intrauterine transmission is modest and the biological mechanism of the observed association merits further investigation.
Active symptom surveillance was applied to three selected communities ( 160 147 persons) in Tianjin from 2010 to 2012. We examined 1089 individuals showing pertussis-like symptoms, of which 1022 nasopharyngeal specimens were tested for pertussis by polymerase chain reaction and 802 sera for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies. Of the total cases tested, 113 were confirmed, and their demographic, clinical, and vaccination-related data were collected. The annual incidence was 23·52 cases/100 000 persons among communities, which was 16·22 times that obtained via hospital reports for the same period (P < 0·001). The actual incidence in the 15–69 years age group was most significantly underestimated by hospitals, given that it was 43·08 times that of the reported hospital rate. Among the cases aged <15 years, 84·5% were individuals who had been fully vaccinated. The misdiagnosis rate was as high as 94·69%, and only 5·31% of the confirmed pertussis cases were properly diagnosed as pertussis at their first medical visit. Pertussis incidence in China has been severely underestimated and this was in part due to a high misdiagnosis rate. Adolescents and adults have become new high-risk populations. Future work should focus on reinforcing immunization programmes, especially among adolescents and adults.
Sirtuins, NAD-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC), are correlated to aging and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine breed differences of porcine Sirtuins expression and antioxidant capacity in brain between Jinhua pigs (a fatty breed of China) and Danish Landrace pigs (a leaner breed). Effect of age on Sirtuins’ expression was also investigated. At the age of 180 days, the mRNA levels of Sirt1, as well as Sirt2 and Sirt4, in Jinhua pigs were greater, but the mRNA levels of Sirt3, Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7 of Jinhua pigs were lower compared with Danish Landrace pigs. Likewise, at the same BW of 64 kg, the mRNA levels of Sirtuins, except Sirt5 and Sirt7, in Jinhua pigs were greater than Danish Landrace pigs. Meanwhile, Jinhua pigs possessed higher antioxidants activity than Danish Landrace pigs either at the same age or at the same BW. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Sirtuins were decreased with age in brain of the two breeds from 30 to 120 days. The results indicated that Sirtuins expression in brain was different between fatty and lean pigs, and Sirtuins expression may be correlated to antioxidant capacity. In addition, age could down-regulate Siruins expression in porcine brain.
The effect of Dy3+ doping at A-site in hexagonal YMnO3 on the microstructure and magnetic properties was studied. Polycrystalline Y1−xDyxMnO3 samples with x ranging from 0 to 1 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The microstructures of all the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, which shows that Y1−xDyxMnO3 with a low concentration (x ≤ 0.5) of Dy3+ retains a hexagonal symmetry. The crystal structure refinements of the hexagonal Y1−xDyxMnO3 using the Rietveld method show that the unit-cell parameters of a, c, and unit-cell volume increase with increasing Dy doping, while the MnO5 trigonal bipyramids remain almost unchanged. The remarkable increasing of magnetic moment at a low temperature with increasing the Dy3+ doping concentration is ascribed to the spin order of Dy3+ and the increasing Dy3+–Mn3+ coupling and Mn3+–O–O–Mn3+ interaction.
A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
The emission from a light emitting diode (LED) that is emitted under the metal electrode cannot escape into free space. A current blocking layer (CBL) is used to address this issue by forcing the current to flow laterally under the electrode reducing the emission absorbed and hence increasing the overall efficiency of the LED. In this paper a new method to fabricate Schottky and isolating CBLs in GaN LED are investigated. Optical and electrical measurements of these vertical LEDs with and without CBL show different light output powers at identical current densities. The results of this study indicate that CBLs could also be used to suppress the efficiency droop effect for GaN LEDs.
The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and glutenin macropolymer (GMP) in wheat grain are important characteristics that affect the quality of wheat products. Light intensity, as one of the environmental factors affecting grain yield and quality, has been studied extensively; however, little is known about its impact on HMW-GS and distribution of GMP granules in wheat grain. In the present study, two strong-gluten winter wheat cultivars with different subunit compositions were used to evaluate the effect of shading at different grain-filling stages on changes in HMW-GS and distribution of GMP granules in wheat grains. No effects of shading on initial formation time of each individual subunit were found; they responded similarly to shading with an increase in relative content, though the accumulation amount per grain of each individual subunit was decreased due to a decrease in grain weight induced by shading. Shading at different grain-filling stages, especially at the middle grain-filling stage, led to a significant increase in GMP content during grain filling; however, the proportions (by volume, number and surface area) of the larger GMP granules were increased by shading at middle and late grain-filling stages and decreased by shading at early grain-filling stage. It was also found that the content of total HMW-GS was positively correlated with volume proportions of larger GMP granules and negatively correlated with volume proportions of small GMP granules, which indicated that the pattern of response of distribution of GMP granules to shading was closely related to the regulatory effect of shading on the HMW-GS.