To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To report our experience of diagnosis, investigation and management in patients who had undergone laryngectomy secondary to previous squamous cell carcinoma, who were subsequently infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Four post-laryngectomy patients with laboratory-proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were admitted to our institution from 1 March to 1 May 2020. All patients displayed symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 and underwent investigations, including swab and serum sampling, and chest X-ray where indicated. All were managed conservatively on dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 wards and were discharged without the requirement of higher level care.
It is hypothesised that laryngectomy may offer a protective effect against severe or critical disease in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. We hope sharing our experience will aid all practitioners in the management of this, often intimidating, cohort of patients.
Ice mélange has been postulated to impact glacier and fjord dynamics through a variety of mechanical and thermodynamic couplings. However, observations of these interactions are very limited. Here, we report on glaciological and oceanographic data that were collected from 2016 to 2017 at LeConte Glacier and Bay, Alaska, and serendipitously captured the formation, flow and break-up of ephemeral ice mélange. Sea ice formed overnight in mid-February. Over the subsequent week, the sea ice and icebergs were compacted by the advancing glacier terminus, after which the ice mélange flowed quasi-statically. The presence of ice mélange coincided with the lowest glacier velocities and frontal ablation rates in our record. In early April, increasing glacier runoff and the formation of a sub-ice-mélange plume began to melt and pull apart the ice mélange. The plume, outgoing tides and large calving events contributed to its break-up, which took place over a week and occurred in pulses. Unlike observations from elsewhere, the loss of ice mélange integrity did not coincide with the onset of seasonal glacier retreat. Our observations provide a challenge to ice mélange models aimed at quantifying the mechanical and thermodynamic couplings between ice mélange, glaciers and fjords.
Jamie Gundry’s dramatic image of a white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) on the cover of this book reflects the twisting changes in fortune experienced by this species, with a revival that can be attributed to a successful interplay of science, policy and practice. White-tailed eagles were historically much more widely distributed than they are today (Yalden, 2007), once breeding across much of Europe, but by the early twentieth century the species was extinct across much of western and southern Europe. The main cause of its decline was persecution by farmers and shepherds, who considered the eagles a threat to their livestock, but, along with other raptors, white-tailed eagles were also seriously affected by DDT in the 1960s and 1970s, which had disastrous effects on the breeding success of remaining populations.
In the Anthropocene, when our environment is changing rapidly and the windows of opportunity for action to prevent further biodiversity loss are narrow, conservation researchers are increasingly encouraged to think and operate beyond the traditional approaches of producing peer-reviewed papers and presenting results to other members of the research community. Indeed, the perception that researchers belong in their ivory tower, from which they deliver evidence for others to interpret, disseminate and use in decision-making, is thankfully now widely recognised as outdated. The rise of fake news, a deliberate lack of consideration for scientific evidence, and changes to the ways of assessing the value of researchers’ work probably all play a role in supporting this shift in perception. Moreover, for many researchers, the prospect of their work ‘making a difference’ and having an impact on wider society is at least as great a motivation for doing research as generating new knowledge, however interesting that may be.
New and emerging environmental issues make policy and practice difficult. A pressing need to respond when knowledge of the problem is limited is added to an already challenging conservation agenda. Horizon-scanning is an evolving approach that draws on diverse information sources to identify early indications of poorly recognised threats and opportunities. There are many ways to conduct horizon scans, ranging from automated techniques that scan online content and mine text to manual methods that systematically consult large groups of people (often experts). These different approaches aim to sort through vast volumes of information to look for signals of change, for example the rise in microplastics or the use of mobile phones to gather data in remote forests. Identifying these new threats and opportunities is the first important step towards further researching and managing them. This chapter reviews different approaches to horizon-scanning, together with ways of encouraging uptake of scanning outputs. It concludes by introducing emerging technologies that will add value to horizon-scanning in the future.
Depression is a major public health problem in European countries, and health systems need to ensure access to effective psychological and pharmacological treatments. Research suggests that improvements in depression care require “complex interventions” that implement change in several areas simultaneously.
We describe an observational study of the implementation of a “stepped care” model to provide care for all adults presenting with a new case of depression in a mixed urban-rural area of Scotland with a population of 76,000 people.
A team of 5.2 clinicians provided care for about 1,000 new cases of depression each year. “Guided Self-Help” was the baseline intervention for all patients, supplemented where necessary with pharmacological treatment and Cognitive Behavioural or Interpersonal Therapy.
Service delivery systems were reformed to provide: specialist treatment in primary care settings using primarily non-medical clinicians, comprehensive electronic clinical records, continuous outcome monitoring and intensive investment in staff training and support.
Clinical outcomes (measured by the Personal Health Questionnaire, Social and Work Adjustment Scale and EQ-5D) showed significant improvement despite relatively brief clinician contact (2.5 hours over 4.6 contacts). Savings of more than 50% were made on the antidepressant drug budget. Service user satisfaction ratings were high.
Population needs for depression care can be met using “stepped care” models such as that described above. A randomised controlled study of this approach would be required to fully test the model.
Conservation research is essential for advancing knowledge but to make an impact scientific evidence must influence conservation policies, decision making and practice. This raises a multitude of challenges. How should evidence be collated and presented to policymakers to maximise its impact? How can effective collaboration between conservation scientists and decision-makers be established? How can the resulting messages be communicated to bring about change? Emerging from a successful international symposium organised by the British Ecological Society and the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, this is the first book to practically address these questions across a wide range of conservation topics. Well-renowned experts guide readers through global case studies and their own experiences. A must-read for practitioners, researchers, graduate students and policymakers wishing to enhance the prospect of their work 'making a difference'. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Fieldwork provides some of my deepest memories, whether exhilarating (being attacked by snowy owls when studying their nests – I still have the multiply ripped jacket), scary (being told the faulty helicopter will probably have to crash land on the pack ice), bizarre (being courted in the dark by a wild, but originally hand-reared, kakapo, who climbed my body and mated with my head), exhilarating (finding the first albatross nest in the North Atlantic – a black-browed albatross courting the gannets in Shetland), satisfying (discovering healthy populations of red-breasted geese when thought to be on the brink of extinction), amusing (being taken for dead by a passing motorist when spread-eagled on a roadside verge, photographing rare plants), disturbing (seeing the all-too-human excitement of chimpanzees nearly killing a red colobus monkey) or breath-taking (the whale shark swimming, mouth-open, directly towards me).
Invasive shrubs like Tamarix spp. are ecological and economic threats in the U.S. Southwest and West, as they displace native vegetation and require innovative management approaches. Tamarix control typically consists of chemical and mechanical removal, but these methods may have negative ecological and economic impacts. Tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) released for biocontrol are becoming increasingly established within Western river systems and can provide additional control. Previous Diorhabda research studied integration of beetle herbivory with fire and with mechanical management methods and herbicide application (e.g., cut stump), but little research has been conducted on integration with mowing and foliar herbicide application, which cause minimal soil disturbance. At Caballo Reservoir in southern New Mexico, we addressed the question: “How does Tamarix respond to chemical and mechanical control when Diorhabda is well established at a site?” A field experiment was conducted by integrating mowing and foliar imazapyr herbicide at standard (3.6 g ae L−1 [0.75% v/v] and low (1.2 g ae L−1 [0.25% v/v]) rates with herbivory. Treatments were replicated five times at two sites—a dry site and a seasonally flooded site. Beetles and larvae were counted and green foliage was measured over 2 yr. Mowing and full herbicide rates reduced green foliage and limited regrowth compared with low herbicide rate and beetles alone. Integrating conventional management such as mowing and herbicide with biocontrol could improve Tamarix management by providing stresses in addition to herbivory alone.