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Although executive and other cognitive deficits have been found in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), whether these have brain functional correlates has been little studied. This study aimed to examine patterns of task-related activation and de-activation during the performance of a working memory task in patients with the disorder.
Sixty-seven DSM-IV BPD patients and 67 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of within-group activations and areas of differential activation between the groups.
On corrected whole-brain analysis, there were no activation differences between the BPD patients and the healthy controls during the main 2-back v. baseline contrast, but reduced activation was seen in the precentral cortex bilaterally and the left inferior parietal cortex in the 2-back v. 1-back contrast. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, plus in other areas. The changes did not appear to be attributable to previous history of depression, which was present in nearly half the sample.
In this study, there was some, though limited, evidence for lateral frontal hypoactivation in BPD during the performance of an executive task. BPD also appears to be associated with failure of de-activation in key regions of the default mode network.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
This study supports tournament theory in relation to high levels of organizational hierarchies, indicating that the job complexity facing the top management team supposes that pay dispersion positively influences firm performance. Examining a sample of 709 firm-year observations of Spanish listed companies spanning the period 2004–2012, our results indicate that the association between firm performance and top management team pay dispersion is conditional on the effectiveness of corporate governance. High top management team pay dispersion is associated with better performance in owner-controlled firms, where more effective monitoring is exerted by the board of directors.
In the new DR-A in-situ diffusion experiment at Mont Terri, a perturbation (replacement of the initial synthetic porewater in the borehole with a high-salinity solution) has been induced to study the effects on solute transport and retention, and more importantly, to test the predictive capability of reactive transport codes. Reactive transport modeling is being performed by different teams (IDAEA-CSIC, PSI, Univ. Bern, Univ. British Columbia, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab.). Initial modeling results using the CrunchFlow code and focusing on Cs+ behavior are reported here.
Matrix diffusion is a key process for radionuclide retention in crystalline rocks. Within the LTD project (Long-Term Diffusion), an in-situ diffusion experiment in unaltered non-fractured granite was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (www.grimsel.com, Switzerland). The tracers included 3H as HTO, 22Na+, 134Cs+ and 131I- with stable I- as carrier.
The dataset (except for 131I- because of complete decay) was analyzed with different diffusion-sorption models by different teams (NAGRA / IDAEA-CSIC, UJV-Rez, JAEA, Univ. Poitiers) using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusion coefficients (De) and porosity (ϕ) or rock capacity (α) values. A Borehole Disturbed Zone (BDZ), which was observed in the rock profile data for 22Na+ and 134Cs+, had to be taken into account to fit the experimental observations. The extension of the BDZ (1-2 mm) was about the same magnitude as the mean grain size of the quartz and feldspar grains.
De and α values for the different tracers in the BDZ are larger than the respective values in the bulk rock. Capacity factors in the bulk rock are largest for Cs+ (strong sorption) and smallest for 3H (no sorption). However, 3H seems to display large α values in the BDZ. This phenomenon will be investigated in more detail in a second test starting in 2013.
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA) for porcine salivary chromogranin A (CgA) measurements, using a species-specific antibody, and evaluate its behaviour in an acute stress model. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with a synthetic porcine fragment of CgA359−379 and used to develop a sandwich TR-IFMA. This TR-IFMA was analytically validated and showed intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 6.23% and 5.82%, respectively, an analytical limit of detection of 4.27 × 10−3 μg/ml and a limit of quantification of 24.5 × 10−3 μg/ml. The assay also demonstrated a high level of accuracy, as determined by linearity under dilution (r = 0.975) and recovery tests. When a model of experimental acute stress, in which animals were immobilized for 3 min with a nose snare (stressor stimulus), was applied, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CgA levels in saliva was detected at 15 min post-stressor stimulus. These results indicate that the assay developed in this study could measure CgA in porcine saliva in a reliable way and that the concentrations of CgA in saliva samples of pigs increase after an acute stress situation.
We present a statistical tool to characterize correlation between the column density structure and the polarized emission from a molecular cloud. This tool uses the gradient as an estimator of the directionality of the structure in order to systematically relate the orientation of filaments and cores to the orientation of the magnetic field inferred from the polarization vectors.
Ground- and space-based observations have confirmed the presence of oscillatory motions in prominences and they have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This interpretation opens the door to perform prominence seismology, whose main aim is to determine physical parameters in magnetic and plasma structures (prominences) that are difficult to measure by direct means. Here, two prominence seismology applications are presented.
We have recently developed a method to perform Density Functional Theory calculations in systems with a very large number of atoms, which is based on the use of numerical atomic orbitals as basis sets. The method incorporates Order-N techniques both in the calculation of the Kohn-Sham hamiltonian matrix elements and in the solution of the wave functions, which make the CPU time and memory to scale linearly with the number of atoms, allowing calculations in very large system. In this work, we present results on several test systems to show that the approach and the basis sets used with our method are able to provide an accuracy similar to that of other standard DFT techniques.
Mesoporous Hybrid Thin Films (MHTF) of a variety of compositions and embedded organic functions are produced by combining sol-gel synthesis, template self-assembly and surface modification. One-pot or post-grafting strategies permit to modify the pore surface behavior. Highly controlled MHTF issued from a reproducible and modular synthesis can be used as building blocks for more complex structures, presenting order at larger scales, and novel properties derived from this multiscale order. Multilayer stacks of MHTF presenting specific and different functions and frameworks located in a well-defined position have been produced by combining sequential film deposition, selective functionalization and dissolution. These systems present new properties such as localized chemistry or modulable photonic crystal behavior.
We present a method for selfconsistent Density Functional Theory calculations in which the effort required is proportional to the size of the system, thus allowing the aplication to problems with a very large size. The method is based on the LCAO approximation, and uses a mixed approach to obtain the Hamiltonian integrals between atomic orbitals with Order-N effort. We show the performance and the convergence properties of the method in several silicon and carbon systems, and in a DNA periodic chain.
In this work we address the behaviour of electronic structure under uniaxial stress, by first-principles calculations and experiments of conductance in nanometer-sized metallic contactes of Au and Al. These contacts are shown to be specially suitable for this purpose. The conductance behaviour is related to the change with strain of Fermi surface. Both experimental and theoretically Au behaves like the free electron gas but Al has the opposite behaviour.
Mesostructured transition metal (Ti, Zr, V, Al and Ce-Zr) oxide-based hybrid thin films, templated by poly(ethylene oxide)-based surfactants or block copolymers, have been prepared reproducibly, displaying 2D-hexagonal (p6m) or 2D-centred rectangular (c2m) structure. By carefully adjusting the variables involved it is possible to combine both high organisation and excellent optical quality. TiO2 and ZrO2-based materials show thermal stability up to 400-550°C. The elimination of the template can be conducted efficiently and gives rise to high surface area mesoporous films. For the other metal oxide hybrids the inorganic framework is much more fragile, and requires a precise sequence of post-treatments to be stabilised. In addition, original and homogeneous macrotextures shaped with coral-like, helical or macroporous sieves morphologies have been obtained following a nanotectonic approach based on the template-directed assembly by poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) of organically functionalised CeO2 crystalline nanoparticles.
Mesostructured titanium-oxo/polymer hybrids were obtained by using Ti16O16(OEt)32 (TS) clusters or by aging solutions of Ti alkoxides as precursors. Dendrimers or PEO-based surfactants were used as templating agents. Solids were characterised by XRD, TEM, FTIR and multinuclear liquid and solid (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Two synthetic approaches are described. In the alkoxide-based systems, the control of the high reactivities of the Ti (IV) metal centers, is essential to obtain ordered mesophases. The assembly of nanobuilding blocks (ANBB) permits to circumvent this high reactivity by using pre-formed Ti-oxo entities. The use of versatile functionalised dendrimers permits to control the reactivity at the surface of the cluster, giving birth to novel ordered architectures.
In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum–fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with observed soil organic matter (SOM) data similar to the study presented here, there are many opportunities for the application of the CSM for carbon sequestration and resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Several studies have suggested that immigrants have higher rates of psychiatric emergency service use and a higher risk of mental disorders such as schizophrenia than indigenous populations.
To compare the likelihood that immigrants (immigrant group) v. indigenous population (indigenous group) will be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder in a psychiatric emergency service and to determine differences according to area of origin.
A total of 11 578 consecutive admissions over a 4-year period at a tertiary psychiatric emergency service were reviewed. The collected data included socio-demographic and clinical variables and the Severity of Psychiatric Illness rating score. Psychiatric diagnosis was limited to information available in the emergency room given that a structured interview is not usually feasible in this setting. The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was based on DSM–IV criteria. Immigrants were divided into five groups according to region of origin: North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, South America, Asia and Western countries.
Multivariate statistical logistic regression analysis showed that all subgroups of immigrants had a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder than the indigenous population independently of age and gender. Furthermore, the rates of borderline personality disorder diagnosis were considerably lower in Asian and sub-Saharan subgroups than in South American, North African, Western or native subgroups.
Our results showed that in the psychiatric emergency service borderline personality disorder was diagnosed less frequently in the immigrant group v. the indigenous group. Our results do not support the concept of migration as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder.
One of the typical features shown by observations of solar prominence oscillations is that they are quickly damped in time by one or several not well-known mechanisms. In addition, recent high resolution observations have revealed that the prominence fine structures, called fibrils, can oscillate with their own periods, independently from the rest of the prominence. The main aim of the present work is to study the attenuation of oscillations supported by a single prominence fibril. We consider an equilibrium made of a prominence plasma Cartesian slab of finite width embedded in a coronal medium, and assume non-adiabatic effects (thermal conduction, radiation losses and heating) as damping mechanisms. The magnetic field is taken uniform and parallel to the slab axis. We find that the efficiency of the non-adiabatic effects as damping mechanisms is different for each magnetoacoustic mode. The obtained values of the damping time are compatible with those observed in the case of the slow modes, but the fast modes are much less attenuated.
Little is known about the relationship between feed intake behaviour and cholesterol levels in humans. This can be attributed to the fact that feed intake behaviour in humans is difficult to assess. The relationships between feed intake, feed efficiency and feed intake behaviour, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels were investigated at an average age of 187 days, in a pig model consisting of 202 Duroc barrows. Feed intake and feed intake behaviour were recorded individually and daily by means of an electronic identification system. Animals with high levels of total cholesterol also had high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. Animals with high levels of HDL also had high levels of LDL and triglycerides, and animals with high levels of LDL also had high levels of triglycerides. Animals with higher BW, higher backfat thickness, higher BW gain, higher gain of backfat deposition, higher feed intake, higher residual feed intake (RFI) and higher feed intake rate had higher levels of total, HDL and LDL plasma cholesterol. Results indicate that the relationship between feed intake and cholesterol levels is a long-term relationship, while the relationship between RFI and cholesterol levels is more of a short-term nature. The relationship between intake rate and cholesterol plasma levels disappeared after correction for the amount of feed consumed. Results indicate that feed intake independent of metabolic BW, growth and fatness, i.e. ‘RFI’, was positively correlated with cholesterol plasma levels. This suggests that eating food over and above the maintenance and growth requirements constitutes a health risk independent of the level of fatness.