Partial cross protection against a skin-parasitic ciliate has been recorded in rainbow trout previously immunized with an ectoparasitic platyhelminth. The susceptibility to infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis differed significantly between naive and Gyrodactylus derjavini immunized rainbow trout. Fish partly immune to the ectoparasitic monogenean G. derjavini became less infected and experienced lower mortality than naive fish when exposed to I. multifiliisinfections. In vitro studies on immobilization of theronts using decomplemented (heat-inactivated) serum from G. derjavini immune or non-immune hosts showed no immobilization. However, untreated serum from both immune and non-immune fish containing intact complement immobilized theronts (titre 128–256). In addition, non-specific priming of the host response with interleukin (IL-1), bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concanavalin A (Con A) or mannan did confer a partial resistance to I. multifiliis infection. This will suggest that non-specific factors including complement could be partly responsible for the host response against infections with this ciliate.