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This chapter describes the grammar of groups and phrases in Korean – covering nominal groups, verbal groups, adverbial groups and co-verbal phrases. The function structure of each unit is introduced and their meaning potential is formalised in system networks. The realisation of systems by function structures and their realisation in turn by words and morphemes or by embedded groups or clauses is outlined. Korean morphology is brought into the picture to clarify the realisation of choices for meaning at group/phrase rank.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for construing experience – transitivity. It begins with a basic introduction to experiential clause structure, covering participants, processes and circumstances. It then presents the distinctive structures of material, mental, relational and verbal clauses. The meaning potential of each clause type is consolidated in a system network whose realisation in structure is specified. Following a discussion of diathesis (covering voice and causatives), a range of types of circumstance are surveyed.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for composing information flow, focusing on theme. It begins with a basic introduction to textual clause structure – Theme and Rheme. It then describes the different types of Theme (Topical Theme, Interpersonal Theme and Textual Theme) and their grammatical realisation. The contribution of each type of Theme is illustrated in short texts illustrating their role in managing texture. The chapter concludes with a discussion of thematic progression and introduces guidelines for recognising types of Theme in discourse.
This chapter introduces the appliable linguistics theory, Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), informing this grammar of Korean. The three basic theoretical dimensions of SFL are outlined – stratification (levels of language), rank (constituency) and metafunction (kinds of meaning). The approach to the distinctive relation of system to structure in SFL is then explained, including the formalisation of paradigmatic relations in system networks. The chapter closes with an outline of the book as a whole.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for construing logical relations between clauses. The chapter begins by clarifying the distinction between a clause simplex and a clause complex and the distinction between a clause complex and a verbal group complex. Subsequently the basic oppositions between parataxis and hypotaxis on the one hand and between projection and expansion on the other are introduced and relevant resources are then presented, section by section, in more detail. A sample analysis of a longer clause complex rounds off the discussion.
The final chapter explores the relevance of this grammar of Korean to two particular contexts of application (i) teaching Korean as a foreign language and (ii) translation and interpreting (T&I). It begins with a discussion of traditional approaches to teaching Korean as a foreign language and then illustrates the way the grammar can be drawn on to inform a pedagogic practice based on Reading to Learn (R2L) – focusing on locative relational clauses. The chapter then turns to relevance of the grammar to the field of translation and interpreting, beginning with an interpretation example and moving on to a translation example. The chapter concludes with a brief note on additional fields of application.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for enacting social relations – mood. A basic distinction is drawn between the systems of formal mood and addressee deference on the one hand and the systems of informal mood, stance and politeness on the other. Subsequently the systems of polarity, modality, participant deference, highlight, comment and expletion are outlined. For each system the relevant choices for meaning are consolidated in system networks and their realisation in structure at clause, group/phrase and word ranks is specified.
Using the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), this pioneering book provides the first comprehensive account of Korean grammar, building foundations for an engagement with Korean texts across a range of spoken and written registers and genres. It treats grammar as a meaning-making resource, comprising experiential resources for construing reality, interpersonal resources for enacting social relations, textual resources for composing coherent discourse, and logical resources for linking clauses. It deals not only with clause systems and structures but also focuses on their realisation as groups and phrases (and clause rank particles), and the realisation of these groups and phrases in words (including clitics and relevant suffixation). Its concluding chapter demonstrates how this grammar can be applied – for teaching Korean as a foreign language and for translation and interpreting studies. This book is essential reading for scholars and students of Asian languages and linguistics and functional approaches to grammar description.
This study aims to analyze and describe terrorism-related attacks in East Asia from 1970 through 2020.
East Asia consists of South Korea, North Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Macao. According to the Global Terrorism Index (GTI) 2022, the impact of terrorism in East Asia is very low. However, the assassination of former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on July 8, 2022 demonstrates that East Asia is not safe from terrorist attacks. This descriptive analysis of terrorist attacks in East Asia will help first responders, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), hospital-based medical providers, and policymakers establish a more refined hazard vulnerability assessment (HVA) framework and develop a Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery plan.
This is a descriptive observational study drawing data from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) from January 1, 1970 through December 31, 2020. Epidemiology outcomes included primary weapon type, primary target type, the country where the incident occurred, and the number of total deaths and injured collected. Data from 2021 were not yet available at the time of this study. Results were exported into an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Corp.; Redmond, Washington USA) for analysis.
There were 779 terrorism-related events in East Asia from 1970 through 2020. In total, the attacks resulted in 1,123 deaths and 9,061 persons injured. The greatest number of attacks (371; 47.63%) occurred in Japan and the second most occurred in China (268; 34.4%). Explosives were the most used primary weapon type (308; 39.54%) in the region, followed by incendiary devices (260; 33.38%). Terrorist attacks drastically diminished from their peak of 92 in 1990, but there were additional peaks of 88 in 1996, 18 in 2000, 20 in 2008, and 36 attacks in 2014.
A total of 779 terrorist attacks occurred from 1970 through 2020 in East Asia, resulting in 1,123 deaths and 9,061 injuries. Of those, 82.03% attacks occurred in Japan and China. Terrorist attacks drastically diminished since their peak in 1996, but there is an overall uptrend in attacks since 1999.
We study the effect of insoluble surfactants on the spatio-temporal evolution of turbulent jets. We use three-dimensional numerical simulations and employ an interface-tracking/level-set method that accounts for surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses. The present study builds on our previous work (Constante-Amores et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 922, 2021, A6) in which we examined in detail the vortex–surface interaction in the absence of surfactants. Numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of Weber and elasticity numbers in which vorticity production is generated by surface deformation and surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses. The present work demonstrates, for the first time, the crucial role of Marangoni stresses, brought about by surfactant concentration gradients, in the formation of coherent, hairpin-like vortex structures. These structures have a profound influence on the development of the three-dimensional interfacial dynamics. We also present theoretical expressions for the mechanisms that influence the rate of production of circulation in the presence of surfactants for a general, three-dimensional, two-phase flow, and highlight the dominant contribution of surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses.
In this work, we study the effect of insoluble surfactants on the three-dimensional rim-driven retraction dynamics of thin water sheets in air. We employ an interface-tracking/level-set method to ensure the full coupling between the surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses, interfacial diffusion and inertia. Our findings are contrasted with the (Newtonian) dynamics of a liquid sheet edge, finding that the surfactant concentration can delay, or effectively prevent, the breakup of the rim. Our simulations use the fastest growing Rayleigh–Plateau instability to drive droplet detachment from the fluid sheet (rim). The results of this work unravel the significant role of Marangoni stresses in the retracting sheet dynamics at large elasticity numbers. We study the sensitivity of the dynamics to the elasticity number and the rigidification of the interface.