To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the last years, perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic (PV) research due to their possibility to become a highly efficient and low-cost alternative to silicon solar cells. Cells based on the widely used Pb-containing perovskites have reached power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of more than 20 %. One of the major hurdles for the rapid commercialization of perovskite photovoltaics is the lack of deposition tools and processes for large areas. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an appealing technique because it is scalable and furthermore features superior process control and reproducibility in depositing high-purity films. In this work, we present a novel showerhead-based CVD tool to fabricate perovskite films by simultaneous delivery of precursors from the gas phase. We highlight the control of the perovskite film composition and properties by adjusting the individual precursor deposition rates. Providing the optimal supply of precursors results in stoichiometric perovskite films without any detectable residues.
Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during take-off. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise reduction procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce certification noise levels, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this article is a take-off performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict take-off trajectories and certification noise levels. Results indicate advanced take-off procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.
Previous studies have highlighted the role of the brain reward and cognitive control systems in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). In an attempt to disentangle the relative contribution of these systems to the disorder, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate hemodynamic responses to reward-related stimuli presented both subliminally and supraliminally in acutely underweight AN patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC).
fMRI data were collected from a total of 35 AN patients and 35 HC, while they passively viewed subliminally and supraliminally presented streams of food, positive social, and neutral stimuli. Activation patterns of the group×stimulation condition×stimulus type interaction were interrogated to investigate potential group differences in processing different stimulus types under the two stimulation conditions. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity were investigated using generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis.
AN patients showed a generally increased response to supraliminally presented stimuli in the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), but no alterations within the reward system. Increased activation during supraliminal stimulation with food stimuli was observed in the AN group in visual regions including superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus/parahippocampal gyrus. No group difference was found with respect to the subliminal stimulation condition and functional connectivity.
Increased IFJ activation in AN during supraliminal stimulation may indicate hyperactive cognitive control, which resonates with clinical presentation of excessive self-control in AN patients. Increased activation to food stimuli in visual regions may be interpreted in light of an attentional food bias in AN.
A cereal rye cover crop mulch can suppress summer annual weeds early in the soybean growing season. However, a multi-tactic weed management approach is required when annual weed seedbanks are large or perennial weeds are present. In such situations, the weed suppression from a cereal rye mulch can be supplemented with the use of high-residue cultivators which can prolong the weed-free period during soybean growth. Research trials were conducted to determine the optimum timing of high-residue cultivation for weed control in rolled-crimped cereal rye mulches. Treatments included three cultivation timings with a high-residue cultivator: early (3-4 wk after soybean planting (WAP)), intermediate (5-6 WAP), and late (7-8 WAP), a weed-free and no-cultivation control. Crop and weed measurement included cereal rye biomass, weed biomass, soybean population and biomass, and yield. Cereal rye biomass was 50% lower and weed biomass was three times greater in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012 due to 2011 being a dry year. There was no significant effect of cultivation timing on soybean population when compared to no-cultivation or hand-weeded treatments. While cultivation reduced weed biomass by 67% compared to no-cultivation, soybean yield was only improved by 12% in early and late cultivation treatments and 22% in intermediate cultivation treatment when compared to no-cultivation. Effective strategies for improving weed management by integrating the use of a high-residue cultivator in no-till organic systems could help existing organic field crop producers to reduce tillage while also encourage adoption of organic crop production by conventional growers who prefer reduced-tillage systems. Unlike traditional organic cultivation equipment, therefore, optimal timing of cultivation should be delayed several weeks in organic cover crop-based no-till planted soybean production as compared to the typical tillage-based approach to ensure both weed control and optimal yield.
The ‘holographic’ technique for accurately measuring the surface figure of large reflector antennas, described by Bennet et al, (1976) and Scott and Ryle (1977), has many advantages over older conventional survey methods. These include high speed, low cost, and the absence of any need for additional complex mechanical or optical survey devices. In essence, the technique consists of measuring the complex far-field response of the antenna at a single frequency using a terrestrial, satellite-borne or celestial radiation source of small angular diameter. This two-dimensional pattern is then Fourier-transformed to yield the complex illumination function across the antenna aperture. Antenna surface deviations are manifested as phase fluctuations in this function. In practice, a second antenna is needed to provide a phase reference.
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterized by a very low body weight but readily give up immediate rewards (food) for long-term goals (slim figure), which might indicate an unusual level of self-control. This everyday clinical observation may be quantifiable in the framework of the anticipation-discounting dilemma.
Using a cross-sectional design, this study compared the capacity to delay reward in 34 patients suffering from acute AN (acAN), 33 weight-recovered AN patients (recAN) and 54 healthy controls. We also used a longitudinal study to reassess 21 acAN patients after short-term weight restoration. A validated intertemporal choice task and a hyperbolic model were used to estimate temporal discounting rates.
Confirming the validity of the task used, decreased delay discounting was associated with age and low self-reported impulsivity. However, no group differences in key measures of temporal discounting of monetary rewards were found.
Increased cognitive control, which has been suggested as a key characteristic of AN, does not seem to extend the capacity to wait for delayed monetary rewards. Differences between our study and the only previous study reporting decreased delay discounting in adult AN patients may be explained by the different age range and chronicity of acute patients, but the fact that weight recovery was not associated with changes in discount rates suggests that discounting behavior is not a trait marker in AN. Future studies using paradigms with disorder-specific stimuli may help to clarify the role of delay discounting in AN.
We study the stellar content of three galactic bulges with the high resolution gratings (R=7000) of the WiFeS integral field unit in order to better understand their formation and evolution. In all cases we find that at least 50% of the stellar mass already existed 12 Gyrs ago, more than currently predicted by simulations. A younger component (age between ∼1 to ∼8 Gyrs) is also prominent and its present day distribution seems to be much more affected by morphological structures, especially bars, than the older one. This in-depth analysis supports the notion of increasing complexity in bulges which cannot be achieved by mergers alone, but requires a non-negligible contribution from secular evolution.
This study examined everyday action impairment in participants with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) by comparison with participants with Parkinson's disease-no dementia (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in reference to a neuropsychological model. Participants with PDD (n = 20), PD (n = 20), or AD (n = 20) were administered performance-based measures of everyday functioning that allowed for the quantification of overall performance and error types. Also, caregiver ratings of functional independence were obtained. On performance-based tests, the PDD group exhibited greater functional impairment than the PD group but comparable overall impairment relative to the AD group. Error patterns did not differ between PDD and PD participants but the PDD group demonstrated a higher proportion of commission errors and lower proportion of omission errors relative to the AD group. Hierarchical regression analyses showed omission errors were significantly predicted by neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, whereas commission errors were predicted by both measures of general dementia severity (MMSE) and executive control. Everyday action impairment in PDD differs quantitatively from PD but qualitatively from AD and may be characterized by a relatively high proportion of commission errors—an error type associated with executive control deficits. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–12)
To examine the association between energy density and energy costs in single food items and composed diets, and to explore differences in energy density and energy cost between income levels.
A cross-sectional study using data from two Dutch cohort studies and recent national food prices. Food prices were retrieved from two market leader supermarkets. Data on dietary intake were measured using a computerized face-to-face interview (cohort 1) and 24 h recalls (cohort 2).
A sample of 373 young adults from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS, measured in 2000) and a sample of 200 community-dwelling elderly from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (LASA, measured in 2007).
We found significant inverse associations between energy density and energy costs in single food items (r = −0·436, P < 0·01) and composed diets (AGHLS men r = −0·505, women r = −0·413, P < 0·001; LASA men r = −0·559, women r = −0·562, P < 0·001). Furthermore, we found that people stratified into higher energy density quartiles consumed significantly more energy per day, less fruits and vegetables, and had significantly lower diet costs. Explorative analyses on income did not reveal significant differences regarding energy density, costs, or fruit and vegetable intake.
In the Netherlands also, energy density was inversely related with energy costs, implying that healthier diets cost more. However, we could not find differences in energy density or costs between income levels. Future research, using precise food expenditures, is of main importance in studying the economics of obesity and in the aim of making the healthier choice easier.
Naming is generally considered a left-hemisphere function without precise localization. However, recent cortical stimulation studies demonstrate a modality-related anatomical dissociation, in that anterior temporal stimulation disrupts auditory description naming (“auditory naming”) but not visual object naming (“visual naming”), whereas posterior temporal stimulation disrupts naming on both tasks. We hypothesized that patients with anterior temporal abnormalities would exhibit impaired auditory naming, yet normal range visual naming, whereas patients with posterior temporal abnormalities would exhibit impaired performance on both tasks. Thirty-four patients with documented anterior temporal abnormalities and 14 patients with documented posterior temporal abnormalities received both naming tests. As hypothesized, patients with anterior temporal abnormalities demonstrated impaired auditory naming, yet normal range visual naming performance. Patients with posterior temporal abnormalities were impaired in visual naming; however, auditory naming scores were intact. Although these group patterns were statistically significant, on an individual basis, auditory–visual naming asymmetries better predicted whether individual patients had anterior or posterior temporal abnormalities. These behavioral findings are generally consistent with stimulation results, suggesting that modality specificity is inherent in the organization of language, with predictable neuroanatomical correlates. Results also carry clinical implications regarding localizing dysfunction, identifying and characterizing naming deficits, and potentially, in treating neurologically based language disorders. (JINS, 2009, 15, 529–535.)
The CRESST-II direct Dark Matter search is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, Italy. CaWO4 crystals are used as scintillating targets for WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) interactions. They are operated as cryogenic calorimeters in combination with a second cryogenic detector used to measure the scintillation light produced in the target crystal. For each particle interaction, the combination of phonon and light signals provides an event by event discrimination which allows to distinguish known particles (alphas, betas, gammas, neutrons) from the expected signal of WIMPs. A major upgrade of the setup comprises modifications of the shielding, installation of a muon-veto, and new read out electronics, as well as a new detector-support structure to accommodate up to 33 detector modules, i.e. 10 kg of target mass. The experiment was thereafter successfully commissioned in 2007. Data obtained during this commissioning phase from 2 detector modules are presented here. Combining the data collected with these two detector modules with data from one single module obtained during the CRESST-I phase, the experiment could already place a limit of ~6 × 10-7 pb for the spin independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section at a WIMP mass of ~60 GeV/c2.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
CVC plus® is a worldwide established and well proven
technology package to control profile and flatness in hot strip
mills and plate mills. Latest developments of this technology
are the application of CVC plus® grindings on work and backup
rolls, CVC plus® grindings of higher order and intelligent
shifting strategies. The capability of the developments is
demonstrated with recent operational results.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Interactions at magnetic interfaces are central to the operation of virtually all magnetic heterostructures. When the interface is between two magnetic materials, the exchange interaction between spins at the interface is often a dominant force, and can dramatically change the magnetic response of the overall heterostructure. In ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) heterostructures, this interaction is often referred to as exchange anisotropy or bias and it has been widely used over the past decade in a wide array of applications such as magnetic recording heads, MRAMs, etc. The powerful implications of interactions between an AFM and a FM have been realized in a wide range of thin film heterostructure with both metallic and oxide constituents. There is, however, much less work on oxide-oxide FM/AFM systems. On the other hand, the development and understanding of functional oxide materials, especially multifunctional materials like BiFeO3 (BFO), have piqued the interest of researchers worldwide with the promise of coupling between order parameters such as ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism. Recent research suggests that there is exchange coupling and anisotropy between the metallic ferromagnet Co0.9Fe0.1 (CoFe) and the multiferroic, antiferromagnet BFO, showing the possibility to create highly desirable multifunctional systems with new possibilities for device design. Such a result provides the driving force to create multifunctional oxide-oxide systems where exchange interactions could be much stronger then in metal/oxide structures due the added epitaxial nature of the interface. In this study, we use La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO)/BFO thin film heterostructures as a model system to explore the exchange interaction at an oxide interface. The heterostructures are grown on various vicinal cuts of SrTiO3 single crystal substrates using laser MBE. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry reveals high quality films with the pristine interfaces required for exchange coupling. First results from photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) studies reveal that the magnetic LSMO domain structure mimics underneath ferroelectric BFO domain structure, i..e, it is strongly pinned by the underlying AFM structure. The coupling behavior is being characterized by magnetic measurements (SQUID, VSM), which shows a strong enhancement in the coercivity of the LSMO layer, suggesting the existence of exchange bias coupling. We are probing the strength of this coupling using a combination of careful laser MBE growth experiments and physical property measurements. In this paper, we will report results of experiments in which the LSMO layer has been grown by laser MBE in the thickness range of 2-50nm on a  BFO layer.
Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate research methods are used to study the determinants of obesity under normal circumstances. Evidence from studies using experimental diets have shortcomings because of their short duration and selection of highly-motivated subjects and because the outcomes can be easily influenced by the choice of foods to be used in the intervention. Of the observational studies, many have severe methodological shortcomings, e.g. ecological studies, cross-sectional surveys and classical cohort studies in which the baseline diet is linked to subsequent weight development over long periods of time. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements in which changes in diet and physical activity are linked to changes in weight are probably the most informative, but these studies are relatively rare. There is a great interest in interventions that are effective and efficient for the prevention of obesity. Many countries and research funding agencies seem to show a strong tendency to develop interventions for children and adolescents exclusively. It can be easily shown, however, that intervention programmes are much more likely to be cost-effective in older adults than in children, which indicates that adults should not be neglected as target populations for obesity prevention. Obesity prevention should follow a life-course approach, as currently recommended for non-communicable diseases in general by the WHO.
Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited from trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and Ammonia (NH3) by thermal atomic layer deposition (thermal ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on 200 mm silicon wafers. For both thermal ALD and PEALD, the deposition rate increased significantly with the deposition temperature. The deposition rate did not fully saturate even with 10 seconds of NH3 pulse time. Plasma significantly increased the deposition rate of AlN films. A large number of incubation cycles were needed to deposit AlN films on Si wafers. 100% step coverage was achieved on trenches with aspect ratio of 35:1 at 100 nm feature size by thermal ALD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed that the AlN films deposited from 370 °C to 470 °C were polycrystalline. Glancing angle X-ray reflection (XRR) results showed that the RMS roughness of the films increased as the film thickness increased.