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We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
Children with poor mental health often struggle at school. The relationship between childhood psychiatric disorder and exclusion from school has not been frequently studied, but both are associated with poor adult outcomes. We undertook a secondary analysis of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys from 2004 and its follow-up in 2007 to explore the relationship between exclusion from school and psychopathology. We predicted poorer mental health among those excluded.
Psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while psychiatric disorder was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment and applying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria. Exclusion from school and socio-demographic characteristics were reported by parents. Multi-variable regression models were used to examine the impact of individual factors on exclusion from school or psychological distress.
Exclusion from school was commoner among boys, secondary school pupils and those living in socio-economically deprived circumstances. Poor general health and learning disability among children and poor parental mental health were also associated with exclusion. There were consistently high levels of psychological distress among those who had experienced exclusion at baseline and follow-up.
We detected a bi-directional association between psychological distress and exclusion. Efforts to identify and support children who struggle with school may therefore prevent both future exclusion and future psychiatric disorder.
We studied the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers, e.g. cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), cagA promoter, vacuolating associated cytotoxin A (vacA) alleles induced by contact with epithelium (iceA type), and outer membrane protein Q (hopQ) in expatriates and compared them with those in local residents. Gastric biopsies were obtained at endoscopy for culture, histology and PCR for virulence marker and hopQ. Of 309 patients, 236 (76%) were males with a mean age of 45 years. A total of 102 patients were expatriates. hopQ type 1 was present in 98 (47%) local residents compared to 88 (86%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while hopQ type 2 was present in 176 (85%) local residents, compared to 60 (59%) expatriates (P < 0·001). H. pylori virulence marker cagA was positive in 97 (47%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001) while cagA-P was positive in 72 (35%) local residents compared to 87 (85%) expatriates (P < 0·001). iceA type 1 was positive in 157 (76%) local residents compared to 45 (44%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while iceA type 2 was positive in 81 (39%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001). Distribution of H. pylori cagA, cagA promoter, iceA and hopQ type in local residents and expatriates was different. H. pylori virulence markers were associated with severe pathology in expatriates.
We develop a new star formation (SF) law based on the density PDF of turbulence and on the multi-freefall concept of gas collapse. We derive a relation where the star formation rate (SFR) correlates with the molecular gas mass per multi-freefall time, whereas previous models had used the average, single-freefall time. We define a new quantity called maximum (multi-freefall) gas consumption rate (MGCR) and show that the actual SFR is only about 0.4% of this maximum possible SFR, confirming the observed low efficiency of star formation.
Food packages were objectively assessed to explore differences in nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques and health and nutrition claims between countries, in comparison to national regulations.
Chip and sweet biscuit packages were collected from sixteen countries at different levels of economic development in the EPOCH (Environmental Profile of a Community’s Health) study between 2008 and 2010.
Seven hundred and thirty-seven food packages were systematically evaluated for nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques relevant to nutrition and health, and health and nutrition claims. We compared pack labelling in countries with labelling regulations, with voluntary regulations and no regulations.
Overall 86 % of the packages had nutrition labels, 30 % had health or nutrition claims and 87 % displayed selected marketing techniques. On average, each package displayed two marketing techniques and one health or nutrition claim. In countries with mandatory nutrition labelling a greater proportion of packages displayed nutrition labels, had more of the seven required nutrients present, more total nutrients listed and higher readability compared with those with voluntary or no regulations. Countries with no health or nutrition claim regulations had fewer claims per package compared with countries with regulations.
Nutrition label regulations were associated with increased prevalence and quality of nutrition labels. Health and nutrition claim regulations were unexpectedly associated with increased use of claims, suggesting that current regulations may not have the desired effect of protecting consumers. Of concern, lack of regulation was associated with increased promotional marketing techniques directed at children and misleadingly promoting broad concepts of health.
A high-throughput methodology is applied for the discovery and optimization of novel catalyst formulations to convert readily available hydrocarbon-based JP-8 fuel directly into a lighter hydrocarbon product suitable for portable power applications utilizing LPG-powered fuel cells. In addition to catalytic cracking challenges, JP-8 cracking poses other challenges including high sulfur content (up to 3,000 ppmw) and significant concentration of aromatics, which are precursors to coking. An existing 16-channel high-throughput reactor system was modified for the JP-8 catalytic cracking studies. The catalyst support material was of primary importance in determining cracking activity. Alumina-based catalytic materials demonstrate the greatest activity for conversion of JP-8 to LPG during catalytic cracking at reactor temperatures above 600°C. This is attributed to the importance of acidic reaction sites within the structure of the catalytic support. The addition of noble metals to the alumina-based materials does not yield significant improvements in JP-8 conversion.
The aim of this study was to determine the nationwide prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster survey of a random sample of persons aged ⩾15 years was included in 40 clusters (20 urban, 20 rural). Two sputum samples were collected from study participants and tested initially by fluorescence microscopy and confirmed by the Ziehl–Neelsen method. The crude and adjusted prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using standard methods. A total of 33 new smear-positive TB cases were detected among 52 098 individuals who participated in the study. The average participation rate was over 80%. The overall crude prevalence of new smear-positive TB in persons aged ⩾15 years was estimated as 63·3/100 000 (95% CI 43·6–88·9) and the adjusted prevalence was 79·4/100 000 (95% CI 47·1–133·8). TB prevalence was higher in males (n=24) and in rural areas (n=20). The prevalence was highest in the 55–64 years age group (201/100 000) and lowest in 15–24 years age group (43·0/100 000). The prevalence was higher in persons with no education (138·6/100 000, 95% CI 78·4–245·0). The overall prevalence of smear-positive TB was significantly lower than the prevalence estimate of the previous nationwide survey in Bangladesh in 1987–1988 (870/100 000).
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms, from genes to the biosphere. The value of biodiversity is multifold, from preserving the integrity of the biosphere as a whole, to providing food and medicines, to spiritual and aesthetic well-being.
One of the major drivers of biodiversity loss in Europe is atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr).
This chapter focuses on Nr impacts on European plant species diversity; in particular, the number and abundance of different species in a given area, and the presence of characteristic species of sensitive ecosystems.
We summarise both the scientific and the policy aspects of Nr impacts on diversity and identify, using a range of evidence, the most vulnerable ecosystems and regions in Europe.
Key findings/state of knowledge
Reactive nitrogen impacts vegetation diversity through direct foliar damage, eutrophication, acidification, and susceptibility to secondary stress.
Species and communities most sensitive to chronically elevated Nr deposition are those that are adapted to low nutrient levels, or are poorly buffered against acidification. Grassland, heathland, peatland, forest, and arctic/montane ecosystems are recognised as vulnerable habitats in Europe; other habitats may be vulnerable but are still poorly studied.
It is not yet clear if different wet-deposited forms of Nr (e.g. nitrate, NO3− versus ammonium, NH4+) have different effects on biodiversity. However, gaseous ammonia (NH3) can be particularly harmful to vegetation, especially lower plants, through direct foliar damage.
Fiber-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for remote in-situ monitoring of organometallic delivery in organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) is presented. The measurement is based on infrared absorbance of the organometallic reagent in a short single pass gas cell placed in the gas delivery line of an OMCVD system. The performance of the set-up is demonstrated for monitoring concentration transients during the delivery of two common OMCVD precursors, trimethylgallium (TMG) and trimethylindium (TMI). The time to reach saturation is shown to be faster for a TMG bubbler than for a TMI bubbler. This difference in delivery behavior is interpreted through a mathematical model of the gas handling lines and the monitoring gas cell. The utility of the system in monitoring temporal variations in TMI delivery is also demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the system to detect the chemical species unintentionally present in the feed lines is illustrated with the observation of methane gas from TMG and TMI bubblers that have been dormant for a period time. The methane gas is shown to quickly disappear with repeated used of the bubblers.
Two photocatalytic systems consisting of spatially organized electron donor/photosensitizer/oxide semiconductor/catalyst assemblies are described. The first consists of an aluminosilicate zeolite (mordenite or zeolite L) containing Pt clusters, methylviologen, and titanium oxide within the linear channels, together with a size-excluded photosensitizer RuL32+ (L = 4, 4-dicarboxy-2, 2-bipyridine) adsorbed at the TiO2 surface. The kinetics of photochemical charge separation and hydrogen evolution in the presence of sacrificial electron donors are reported. In the second system, a layered oxide semiconductor, K4−xHxNb6O17·nH2O, replaces the zeolite/TiO2/MV2+ composite. Using adsorbed RuL3 and visible light excitation, this material decomposes acidic iodide solutions into H2 and I3− with a quantum efficiency of 0.3 %.