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To describe snacking characteristics and patterns in children and examine associations with diet quality and BMI.
Children’s weight and height were measured. Participants/adult proxies completed multiple 24 h dietary recalls. Snack occasions were self-identified. Snack patterns were derived for each sample using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of snacking characteristics and patterns with Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score and BMI were examined using multivariable linear regression models.
Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium, USA: NET-Works, GROW, GOALS and IMPACT studies.
Two snack patterns were derived for three studies: a meal-like pattern and a beverage pattern. The IMPACT study had a similar meal-like pattern and a dairy/grains pattern. A positive association was observed between meal-like pattern adherence and HEI-2010 score (P for trend < 0⋅01) and snack occasion frequency and HEI-2010 score (β coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, 0⋅14 (0⋅04, 0⋅23); GROW, 0⋅12 (0⋅02, 0⋅21)) among younger children. A preference for snacking while using a screen was inversely associated with HEI-2010 score in all studies except IMPACT (β coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, −3⋅15 (−5⋅37, −0⋅92); GROW, −2⋅44 (−4⋅27, −0⋅61); GOALS, −5⋅80 (−8⋅74, −2⋅86)). Associations with BMI were almost all null.
Meal-like and beverage patterns described most children’s snack intake, although patterns for non-Hispanic Blacks or adolescents may differ. Diets of 2–5-year-olds may benefit from frequent meal-like pattern snack consumption and diets of all children may benefit from decreasing screen use during eating occasions.
Mental disorders may emerge as the result of interactions between observable symptoms. Such interactions can be analyzed using network analysis. Several recent studies have used network analysis to examine eating disorders, indicating a core role of overvaluation of weight and shape. However, no studies to date have applied network models to binge-eating disorder (BED), the most prevalent eating disorder.
We constructed a cross-sectional graphical LASSO network in a sample of 788 individuals with BED. Symptoms were assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination Interview. We identified core symptoms of BED using expected influence centrality.
Overvaluation of shape emerged as the symptom with the highest centrality. Dissatisfaction with weight and overvaluation of weight also emerged as highly central symptoms. On the other hand, behavioral symptoms such as binge eating, eating in secret, and dietary restraint/restriction were less central. The network was stable, allowing for reliable interpretations (centrality stability coefficient = 0.74).
Overvaluation of shape and weight emerged as core symptoms of BED. This trend is consistent with past network analyses of eating disorders more broadly, as well as literature that suggests a primary role of shape and weight concerns in BED. Although DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for BED does not currently include a cognitive criterion related to body image or shape/weight overvaluation, our results provide support for including shape/weight overvaluation as a diagnostic specifier.
Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29×10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12 μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12×4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17×6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9 μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20)×8–10 (width)×6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5 μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5×5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided.
The semiconductor industry has seen tremendous progress over the last few decades with continuous reduction in transistor size to improve device performance. Miniaturization of devices has led to changes in the dopants and dielectric layers incorporated. As the gradual shift from two-dimensional metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor to three-dimensional (3D) field-effect transistors (finFETs) occurred, it has become imperative to understand compositional variability with nanoscale spatial resolution. Compositional changes can affect device performance primarily through fluctuations in threshold voltage and channel current density. Traditional techniques such as scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam no longer provide the required resolution to probe the physical structure and chemical composition of individual fins. Hence advanced multimodal characterization approaches are required to better understand electronic devices. Herein, we report the study of 14 nm commercial finFETs using atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). Complimentary compositional maps were obtained using both techniques with analysis of the gate dielectrics and silicon fin. APT additionally provided 3D information and allowed analysis of the distribution of low atomic number dopant elements (e.g., boron), which are elusive when using STEM-EDS.
There is a need for simple proxies of health status, in order to improve monitoring of chronic disease risk within and between populations, and to assess the efficacy of public health interventions as well as clinical management. This review discusses how, building on recent research findings, body composition outcomes may contribute to this effort. Traditionally, body mass index has been widely used as the primary index of nutritional status in children and adults, but it has several limitations. We propose that combining information on two generic traits, indexing both the ‘metabolic load’ that increases chronic non-communicable disease risk, and the homeostatic ‘metabolic capacity’ that protects against these diseases, offers a new opportunity to improve assessment of disease risk. Importantly, this approach may improve the ability to take into account ethnic variability in chronic disease risk. This approach could be applied using simple measurements readily carried out in the home or community, making it ideal for M-health and E-health monitoring strategies.
Food- and waterborne disease is thought to be high in some Canadian Indigenous communities; however, the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is not well understood due to limited availability and quality of surveillance data. This study estimated the burden of community-level self-reported AGI in the Inuit communities of Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Cross-sectional retrospective surveys captured information on AGI and potential environmental risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression models identified potential AGI risk factors. The annual incidence of AGI ranged from 2·9–3·9 cases/person per year in Rigolet and Iqaluit. In Rigolet, increased spending on obtaining country foods, a homeless person in the house, not visiting a cabin recently, exposure to puppies, and alternative sources of drinking water were associated with increased odds of AGI. In Iqaluit, eating country fish often, exposure to cats, employment status of the person responsible for food preparation, not washing the countertop with soap after preparing meat, a homeless person in the house, and overcrowding were associated with increased odds of AGI. The results highlight the need for systematic data collection to better understand and support previously anecdotal indications of high AGI incidence, as well as insights into unique AGI environmental risk factors in Indigenous populations.
The study examined the relative efficacy of group acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Fifty-one individuals with GAD were randomly allocated to a 6-week intervention, either ACT or CBT. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up on symptom measures, quality of life, and process measures. Data from 38 participants (19 in each group) were available at post-assessment, indicating significant improvements on all measures for both treatment conditions. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up, with significant further improvements in anxiety, depression and stress symptoms for both groups. While no between-group differences were found at treatment completion, a significant interaction indicating steeper reduction in worrying symptoms (d = .79) from pre- to post-assessment was found for the ACT group compared to the CBT group. Furthermore, in relation to worrying, at treatment completion 78.9% of participants in the ACT group achieved reliable change compared to 47.4% of participants in the CBT group. However, both groups showed equivalent reliable change rates of 60% at the follow-up assessment. The results suggest that group ACT was as efficacious as group CBT. While participants in the ACT group maintained treatment gains at follow-up, participants in the CBT group continued to improve between post-assessment and follow-up.
The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (P< 0·001); the AAx steers produced more CH4 on a daily basis (mol/d, P< 0·05) but not on a DM intake basis (mol/kg DM intake). Archaea (P= 0·002) and protozoa (P< 0·001) were found to be more abundant and total bacteria (P< 0·001) less abundant (P< 0·001) on feeding the mixed diet. The relative abundance of Clostridium cluster IV was found to be greater (P< 0·001) and that of cluster XIVa (P= 0·025) lower on feeding the mixed diet. The relative abundance of Bacteroides plus Prevotella was greater (P= 0·018) and that of Clostridium cluster IV lower (P= 0·031) in the LIMx steers. There were no significant relationships between H2 emissions and microbial abundance. In conclusion, the rate of H2 production immediately after feeding may lead to transient overloading of methanogenic archaea capacity to use H2, resulting in peaks in H2 emissions from beef cattle.
The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation in risk of hospitalization in childhood pneumonia and empyema in the North of England and associated risk factors. Data on childhood (0–14 years) hospital admissions with a diagnosis pneumonia or empyema were linked to postcode districts. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were used to evaluate spatial variation and the relevance of specific spatial covariates in an area-based study using postcode as the areal unit. There was a sixfold variation in the risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia across the study region. Variation in risk was associated with material deprivation, Child Well-being Index (CWI) health domain score, number of children requiring local authority support, and distance to hospital. No significant spatial variation in risk for empyema was found.
In September 2006, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the UK immunization programme. We aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of all-cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. A prospective survey was undertaken in 2008–2009 at 11 hospitals in North East England of children aged 0–16 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Data were compared to those from a similar survey undertaken in the same hospitals in 2001–2002. A total of 542 children were enrolled, of which 74% were aged <5 years. PCV7 uptake was 90·7%. The incidence of pneumonia was 11·8/10 000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 10·9–12·9], and the hospitalization rate was 9·9/10 000 (95% CI 9·0–10·9). Compared to 2001, there was a 19% (95% CI 8–29) reduction in the rate of CAP in those aged <5 years, and in those <2 years a 33·1% (95% CI 20–45) reduction in the incidence of CAP and 38·1% (95% CI 24–50) reduction in hospitalization rates. However, for those unvaccinated aged ⩾5 years, there was no difference in the incidence of CAP and hospitalization rate between both surveys. Since 2001, the overall reduction in incidence was 17·7% (95% CI 8–26) and for hospitalization 18·5% (95% CI 8–28). For the <5 years age group there was a lower incidence of CAP in PCV7-vaccinated children (25·2/10 000, 95% CI 22·6–28·2) than in those that were not vaccinated (37·4/10 000, 95% CI 29·2–47·1). In conclusion, PCV7 has reduced both incidence and rate of hospitalization of pneumonia in children, particularly in the <2 years age group.
We analysed the incidence of cattle herd breakdowns due to bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in relation to experimental badger culling, badger populations and farm characteristics during the Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). Mixed modelling and event history analysis were used to examine the individual risk factors. The interdependencies of covariates were examined using structural equation modelling. There were consistent findings among the different analyses demonstrating that during a badger culling programme farms experiencing: reactive culling, larger herd sizes, larger holdings and holdings with multiple parcels of land were all at greater risk of a herd breakdown. Proactive culling reduced risks within the culling area, but we did not assess any potential effects in the periphery of the treatment area. Badger-related variables measured prior to the start of culling (number of social groups and length of badger territorial boundaries) did not consistently point to an increase in risk, when set against a background of ongoing badger culling. This could be because (1) the collected variables were not important to risk in cattle, or (2) there were insufficient data to demonstrate their importance. Our findings highlight the difficulty in identifying simple predictors of spatial variation in transmission risks from badger populations and the consequent challenge of tailoring management actions to any such field data.
Faceting in a polyhedral rutile particle was modeled from transmission electron microscopy images. A double-tilt, rotate transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample holder was used to manipulate the particle. Using this holder, it was possible to align the c axis of the particle along one of the axes of the sample holder. This alignment allowed images to be obtained of the particle in several orientations around its c axis. Comparison of dimensions and angles obtained to those obtained for hypothetical models of the particle gives information about its likely prismatic and pyramidal faceting. This approach to facet modeling is useful for more complete determination of the faceting in individual euhedral particles using transmission electron microscopy.
The heteroepitaxial growth of InP and GaInAs on GaAs substrates has been studied by using a new combination of source materials: ethyldimethylindium (EDMIn) and trimethylgallium (TMGa) or triethylgallium (TEGa) as group III sources, and tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) and tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) as group V sources. The heteroepitaxial growth was carried out in a horizontal reactor in H2 under atmospheric pressure using a 2 kW quartz lamp as the substrate heater. Epitaxial InP layers of good surface morphology were obtained by using a two step process. The continuity and thickness of the buffer layer are important parameters. The InP layers deposited at 600°C are n-type, and the electron concentration decreases with decreasing TBP/EDMIn molar ratio. The 4.2 K photoluminescence of InP films is very similar to that of homoepitaxial InP films deposited at 600°C using trimethylindium (TMIn) and phosphine. Epitaxial GaxIn1–xAs layers with In composition varying from 3% to 53% have been deposltedi on GaAs substrates at 500° -550°C. A single growth step can be used for the deposition of GaxIn1–xAs with In composition of less than 20%. An InP buffer layer was used when the GaxIn1–xAS layer contains about 53% In. The composition of GaInAs was determined by optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques.
We have examined methods for controlling the morphology and microstructure of ceramic particles produced by spray pyrolysis. A variety of materials were examined including SrTiO3and BaTiO3 and the oxides of Al, Mg, Zn, Pd, V, Mo, and Bi. The morphology of the particles was influenced by using colloidal precursors in combination with molecular precursors for particle generation. Slow drying rates obtained by using high relative humidities and controlled axial temperature gradients did not influence particle morphology for the systems and conditions studied. The microstructure of Al2O3, V2O5, and PdO particles was controlled by varying the temperature to provide nanocrystalline or single-crystal particles. Evaporation and condensation of volatile species such as MoO3 and V2O5 dramatically modified particle microstructure and morphology.