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Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
14C and δ13C values of C-containing species in cave drip waters are mainly controlled by the C isotope composition of karst rock and soil air, as well as by soil carbon dynamics, in particular the amount of soil CO2 in the unsaturated soil zone and the process of calcite dissolution. Here, we investigate soil carbon dynamics by analyzing the 14C activity and δ13C values of C dissolved in cave drip water. Monthly over a 2-yr period, we collected drip water from 2 drip sites, one fast and one relatively slow, within the shallow Grotta di Ernesto Cave (NE Italy). The 14C data reveal a pronounced annual cycle. In contrast, the δ13C values do not show an annual pattern and only small interannual variability compared to the δ13C values of soil waters. The annual 14C drip-water cycle is a function of drip-rate variability, soil moisture, and ultimately hydrology.
The U.S. Geological Survey, at the Denver Federal Center, Lakewood, Colorado assays C14 concentration of water samples using liquid scintillation techniques. The laboratory synthesizes benzene from precipitated barium carbonate using techniques described by Noakes, Kim, and Akers (1967). Three ml of the synthesized benzene is pipetted into a tared, low potassium-40 glass vial. The sample is weighed and 1ml of a scintillation solution is added to the vial. The scintillation solution used is a mixture of 10g PPO and 0.025g dimethyl-POPOP scintillators in 250ml toluene. Calculations of dates are made with the radiocarbon half-life of 5568 years; plus or minus numbers quoted herein are the standard error for the counting of radioactive disintegrations.
This list includes all measurements made between 1969 and 1973 that represent natural samples. Physical and chemical treatment of samples and counting technique remain as previously reported (R, 1973, v 15, p 469-478). Calculations of dates are made with the radiocarbon half-life of 5568 ± 30 years; plus or minus numbers quoted herein are the standard errors for the counting of radioactive disintegrations.
U–Pb ages of zircon from bentonites within the upper Cretaceous Bastion Ridge and Kanguk formations, Sverdrup Basin, provide constraints on sedimentation rates, biostratigraphic correlations, timing of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in the High Arctic, and the late magmatic history of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). A late Cenomanian to early Turonian age for the base of the Kanguk Formation is confirmed that supports correlations of the global OAE2 in the High Arctic. Sedimentation rates varied from 19 m Ma−1 between 93 and 91 Ma to 26 m Ma−1 between 91 and 83 Ma at Axel Heiberg Island. At Ellef Ringnes Island, the lower Kanguk Formation records high rates of ~70 m Ma−1 between 94 and 93 Ma, which decrease to rates comparable to those of the upper Axel Heiberg section. Differences in sedimentation rates may reflect differences in setting prior to the major transgression in the latest Cenomanian to early Turonian. The timing of Arctic occurrences of the Scaphites nigricollensis and Scaphites depressus ammonite zones is shown to be broadly comparable to that of lower-latitude occurrences within the Western Interior Seaway. An eruption frequency of 0.5–2.5 Ma characterizes the late alkaline phase of HALIP magmatism. Volcanic bed thicknesses of 10–50 cm suggest ash transport distances of less than 1000 km. Long-lived volcanic centres, in the area of the Alpha Ridge, northern Ellesmere Island or northern Greenland, were the likely source of volcanic ash over a period of 10–15 Ma.
Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been detected in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Presently, we aim at assessing differences in emotion recognition performance in PD patient groups with and without mild forms of cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to healthy controls.
Performance on a concise emotion recognition test battery (VERT-K) of three groups of 97 PD patients was compared with an age-equivalent sample of 168 healthy controls. Patients were categorized into groups according to two well-established classifications of MCI according to Petersen's (cognitively intact vs. amnestic MCI, aMCI, vs. non-amnestic MCI, non-aMCI) and Litvan's (cognitively intact vs. single-domain MCI, sMCI, vs. multi-domain MCI, mMCI) criteria. Patients and controls underwent individual assessments using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery examining attention, executive functioning, language, and memory (Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna, NTBV), the Beck Depression Inventory, and a measure of premorbid IQ (WST).
Cognitively intact PD patients and patients with MCI in PD (PD-MCI) showed significantly worse emotion recognition performance when compared to healthy controls. Between-groups effect sizes were substantial, showing non-trivial effects in all comparisons (Cohen's ds from 0.31 to 1.22). Moreover, emotion recognition performance was higher in women, positively associated with premorbid IQ and negatively associated with age. Depressive symptoms were not related to FER.
The present investigation yields further evidence for impaired FER in PD. Interestingly, our data suggest FER deficits even in cognitively intact PD patients indicating FER dysfunction prior to the development of overt cognitive dysfunction. Age showed a negative association whereas IQ showed a positive association with FER.
We propose that the collision rates of non-spherical particles settling in a turbulent environment are significantly higher than those of spherical particles of the same mass and volume. The theoretical argument is based on the dependence of the particle drag force on the particle orientation, thus varying gravitational settling velocities, which can remain different until contact due to the particle inertia. Therefore, non-spherical particles can collide with large relative velocities. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of streamwise decaying isotropic turbulence seeded with small, heavy, rotationally symmetric ellipsoids of five different aspect ratios are performed to confirm these arguments. The motion of 21 million ellipsoids is tracked by a Lagrangian particle solver assuming creeping flow conditions and neglecting the influence of the particles on the flow. We find that ellipsoids collide considerably more often than spherical particles of the same volume and mass due to a drastically increased mean relative velocity at contact.
It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be neutral if some form of adaptation is integrated. Therefore, it is essential to establish and adopt mitigation strategies covering available tools from management, nutrition, health and plant and animal breeding to cope with the future consequences of climate change on dairy farming.
The effects of bread consumption change over time on anthropometric measures have been scarcely studied. We analysed 2213 participants at high risk for CVD from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial to assess the association between changes in the consumption of bread and weight and waist circumference gain over time. Dietary habits were assessed with validated FFQ at baseline and repeatedly every year during 4 years of follow-up. Using multivariate models to adjust for covariates, long-term weight and waist circumference changes according to quartiles of change in energy-adjusted white and whole-grain bread consumption were calculated. The present results showed that over 4 years, participants in the highest quartile of change in white bread intake gained 0·76 kg more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0·003) and 1·28 cm more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend < 0·001). No significant dose–response relationships were observed for change in whole-bread consumption and anthropometric measures. Gaining weight (>2 kg) and gaining waist circumference (>2 cm) during follow-up was not associated with increase in bread consumption, but participants in the highest quartile of changes in white bread intake had a reduction of 33 % in the odds of losing weight (>2 kg) and a reduction of 36 % in the odds of losing waist circumference (>2 cm). The present results suggest that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread consumption, within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
The motion of spanwise vortical elements and large-scale bulges has been tracked in the outer region between wall-normal distance and 0.30 of a turbulent boundary layer at . The experimental dataset of time-resolved three-dimensional velocity fields used has been obtained by tomographic particle image velocimetry. The tracking of these structures yields their respective average trajectories as well as the variations thereof, quantified by the root mean square of the trajectory coordinates as a function of time. It is demonstrated that the variation in convection can be described by a dispersion model for infinitesimal particles in homogeneous turbulence, which suggests that these vortical structures and bulges are transported passively by the external velocity field without significant changes in their topology, at least over the present observation time of . However, this does not mean that the structure’s convection velocity is equal to the local flow velocity at each instant. Differences of the order of the Kolmogorov or wall friction velocity have been observed for the spanwise vortical elements. In addition, the simultaneous detection and tracking of multiple structures allows an evaluation of the relative velocity between two spanwise vortex elements, which are approximately aligned along the streamwise direction. The typical streamwise distance between such neighbouring structures is found to be around . Their relative velocities are small, especially the streamwise component, which shows less variation as may be expected based on the relative flow velocity statistics for the same separation distance. This appears consistent with the hairpin packet model, which comprises a set of streamwise aligned hairpins travelling coherently. In exceptional cases, however, the structures approach each other rapidly, forcing an interaction on a time scale of the order of . It is shown that the measured variation in convection velocity can further be used successfully to predict the temporal development of space–time correlation functions starting from the instantaneous correlation map. In this prediction the structures are assumed to convect without change, following our observations.
The immobilization of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(IC)] on ã-Fe2O3 maghemite nanoparticles via the phosphor-amidate route using a multifunctional polymer is reported. The dsRNA coupled nanoparticles were used to visualize the Toll-like (TLR3) receptors at the cell surface. The presence of TLR3 was demonstrated independently in the Caki-1 cell line by RT-PCR and immunostaining techniques
The new high-resolution neutron powder diffractometer BT-1 at the NIST reactor has proven to be a powerful and versatile instrument in its first year of operation. With 32 detectors arranged at 5° intervals and a 12° 2θ scan range, powder diffraction patterns can be collected to 167° 2θ. There is a choice of three monochromator take-off angles (75°, 90°, and 120°) so that the peak-width minimum can be matched to the rf-spacing range that is most important for each sample; all choices have a wavelength close to 1.54 Å. Data can be collected on sample sizes ranging from 200 mg to 30 g. Temperatures of 0.3 K to 1400 K are routinely available, and a magnetic field of 7T can be applied with a superconducting magnet. Typical data collection times range from 1-12 hours depending upon sample size and desired resolution. Examples are given of a variety of materials applications.
Non-destructive neutron diffractometry for stress analysis will be a powerful experimental tool in material science research performed at the GKSS 5 MW reactor FRG-1. Arguments which show the advantages of the time-of-flight method are given and a suitable high-resolution neutron-efficient type of spectrometer is introduced. First results derived from this method are presented.
Carbon was substitutionally incorporated into silicon using ion implantation
and solid phase epitaxy (SPE) to regenerate a high quality crystalline
substrate. Carbon was implanted into Si (100) substrates using a single
implant of 25 keV ai doses ranging from 1.75 × 1015 to 1.05 ×
1016/cm2. After carbon implantation half of the
substrates were amorphized using a silicon implant. All of the wafers were
subjected to a 700°C anneal in N2 ambient for 30 Minutes to
induce SPE regrowth of the implanted regions. FTIR, SIMS, RBS, and TEM were
used to characterize the samples. Results indicate that carbon was
substitutionally incorporated into the silicon lattice, but that some carbon
did precipitate to form silicon carbide. Post-amorphization improved
regrowth of implanted regions in lower dose implanted wafers. Electrical
Measurements on diode structures indicate that the band gap was reduced for
carbon incorporation at these concentrations.
Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au four terminal Kelvin line structures using the conventional in situ resistance monitoring technique. The stress conditions were a current density of 2.0 MA/cm2 with ambient temperatures ranging from 325°C to 375°C. The temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) values were measured prior to current stressing to calculate the Joule heated film temperatures. The times to failure (lifetimes) for the Au line structures were considered as a 50% ΔR/R0 change. The median time to failure (t50%) was plotted against the inverse film temperature to determine the activation energy value as 0.59 ± 0.09 eV. Failure analysis of void location and suggested diffusion mechanism will be discussed.
Initiation of pathways that lead to proliferation and chemoresistance by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an important factor in cancer progression. Here, we show the response of human cancer cells to TLR signaling inevitably linked to tumor biology. The approach is based on tailored multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles equipped with pathogen-derived ligands (CpG) functioning as TLR agonists (molecular component) to investigate the impact of transcription factor immune activation on human cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles (MnO and bifunctional Au-MnO) particles were covalently coated with a multifunctional polymer, displaying no cytotoxicity, to being able to enter cells while carrying foreign DNA (unmethylated CpG) to recognize intracellular TLR 9. Both, the particle and the nucleic acid are tagged with fluorescent markers for simultaneous visualization inside the cell. Apart from optical imaging, the magnetism of the particles also allows magnetic resonance imaging of organisms.