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In 2013, the national surveillance case definition for West Nile virus (WNV) disease was revised to remove fever as a criterion for neuroinvasive disease and require at most subjective fever for non-neuroinvasive disease. The aims of this project were to determine how often afebrile WNV disease occurs and assess differences among patients with and without fever. We included cases with laboratory evidence of WNV disease reported from four states in 2014. We compared demographics, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence for patients with and without fever and stratified the analysis by neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive presentations. Among 956 included patients, 39 (4%) had no fever; this proportion was similar among patients with and without neuroinvasive disease symptoms. For neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive patients, there were no differences in age, sex, or laboratory evidence between febrile and afebrile patients, but hospitalisations were more common among patients with fever (P < 0.01). The only significant difference in symptoms was for ataxia, which was more common in neuroinvasive patients without fever (P = 0.04). Only 5% of non-neuroinvasive patients did not meet the WNV case definition due to lack of fever. The evidence presented here supports the changes made to the national case definition in 2013.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Hurricane Maria on internalizing and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida after the storm versus those who stayed on the island.
In March through April 2018 (6 months after Hurricane Maria), an online survey was used to assess the effects of the storm on mental health. A sample of 213 displaced Puerto Ricans living in urban and rural/suburban areas in Florida, as well as urban and rural areas of Puerto Rico, participated in the study.
Rates of PTSD were high in both sites (Florida, 65.7%; Puerto Rico, 43.6%); however, participants in Florida were far more likely than those in Puerto Rico to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.67-5.26). Among participants in both Florida and Puerto Rico, those living in urban areas were more likely than those in rural/suburban areas to meet criteria for PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder.
Results suggest that post-Hurricane Maria adjustment and adaptation may have been more psychologically taxing for Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida than it was for those who remained on the island, and more difficult for those in urban areas than it was for those in suburban or rural areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:24–27)
Electrically conducting substrates have shown much promise as neuronal scaffolds and in other biologic and biomedical applications where a smart and electrically interactive material is needed. Most materials that are inherently conducting are not suitable for biomedical applications and lack biocompatibility or biostability. On the other hand, biologically stable and compatible materials must first be manipulated, modified, and treated in order to impart the necessary electrical conductivity to the material. Here, the authors have investigated the response of PC-12 cells to two types of conducting carbon-based aerogels with different surface roughness. Results show that carbon-based aerogels support cell adhesion, proliferation, and neurite extension. The effects of surface roughness have also been investigated.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
Depression contributes to persistent opioid analgesic use (OAU). Treating depression may increase opioid cessation.
To determine if adherence to antidepressant medications (ADMs) v. non-adherence was associated with opioid cessation in patients with a new depression episode after >90 days of OAU.
Patients with non-cancer, non-HIV pain (n = 2821), with a new episode of depression following >90 days of OAU, were eligible if they received ≥1 ADM prescription from 2002 to 2012. ADM adherence was defined as >80% of days covered. Opioid cessation was defined as ≥182 days without a prescription refill. Confounding was controlled by inverse probability of treatment weighting.
In weighted data, the incidence rate of opioid cessation was significantly (P = 0.007) greater in patients who adhered v. did not adhered to taking antidepressants (57.2/1000 v. 45.0/1000 person-years). ADM adherence was significantly associated with opioid cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05–1.46).
ADM adherence, compared with non-adherence, is associated with opioid cessation in non-cancer pain. Opioid taper and cessation may be more successful when depression is treated to remission.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
A study was carried out, from 2012 to 2015, in 10 French départements to estimate the serological prevalence of Q fever and the frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to Coxiella burnetii in a large sample of cattle, sheep and goat herds. The serological survey covered 731 cattle, 522 sheep and 349 goat herds, randomly sampled. The frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to C. burnetii was estimated by investigating series of abortions in 2695 cattle, 658 sheep and 105 goat herds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses and complementary serological results when needed. The average between-herd seroprevalence was significantly lower for cattle (36·0%) than for sheep (55·7%) and goats (61·0%) and significantly higher for dairy herds (64·9% for cattle and 75·6% for sheep) than for meat herds (18·9% for cattle and 39·8% for sheep). Within-herd seroprevalence was also significantly higher for goats (41·5%) than for cattle (22·2%) and sheep (25·7%). During the study period, we estimated that 2·7% (n = 90), 6·2% (n = 48) and 16·7% (n = 19) of the abortive episodes investigated could be ‘potentially related to C. burnetii’in cattle, sheep and goat herds, respectively. Overall, strong variability was observed between départements and species, suggesting that risk factors such as herd density and farming practices play a role in disease transmission and maintenance.
The widespread occurrence of Palmer amaranth resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitors and/or glyphosate led to the increased use of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides. This research aimed to: (1) evaluate the efficacy of foliar-applied fomesafen to Palmer amaranth, (2) evaluate cross-resistance to foliar PPO inhibitors and efficacy of foliar herbicides with different mechanisms of action, (3) survey the occurrence of the PPO Gly-210 deletion mutation among PPO inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth, (4) identify other PPO target-site mutations in resistant individuals, and (5) determine the resistance level in resistant accessions with or without the PPO Gly-210 deletion. Seedlings were sprayed with fomesafen (263 gaiha−1), dicamba (280 gaiha−1), glyphosate (870 gaiha−1), glufosinate (549 g ai ha−1), and trifloxysulfuron (7.84 gaiha−1). Selected fomesafen-resistant accessions were sprayed with other foliar-applied PPO herbicides. Mortality and injury were evaluated 21 d after treatment (DAT). The PPX2L gene of resistant and susceptible plants from a selected accession was sequenced. The majority (70%) of samples from putative PPO-resistant populations in 2015 were confirmed resistant to foliar-applied fomesafen. The efficacy of other foliar PPO herbicides on fomesafen-resistant accessions was saflufenacil>acifluorfen=flumioxazin>carfentrazone=lactofen>pyraflufen-ethyl>fomesafen>fluthiacet-methyl. With small seedlings, cross-resistance occurred with all foliar-applied PPO herbicides except saflufenacil (i.e., 25% with acifluorfen, 42% with flumioxazin). Thirty-two percent of PPO-resistant accessions were multiple resistant to glyphosate and trifloxysulfuron. Resistance to PPO herbicides in Palmer amaranth occurred in at least 13 counties in Arkansas. Of 316 fomesafen survivors tested, 55% carried the PPO Gly-210 deletion reported previously in common waterhemp. The PPO gene (PPX2L) in one accession (15CRI-B), which did not encode the Gly-210 deletion, encoded an Arg-128-Gly substitution. The 50% growth reduction values for fomesafen in accessions with Gly-210 deletion were 8- to 15-fold higher than that of a susceptible population, and 3- to 10-fold higher in accessions without the Gly-210 deletion.
, along with their rotations, play an important role among those functions that are harmonic and orientation-preserving and map the unit disc onto a convex domain. The main theorem in this paper generalises results in recent literature by showing that convex combinations of functions in
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
Much of the new dust in the local ISM is produced in the last phases of stellar evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Despite its importance, our knowledge of how dust properties depend on metallicity is limited. Studies of planetary nebulae in irregular galaxies in the Local Group (mostly focused on the LMC and SMC) have revealed a diverse spectral zoo and shown that low metallicity favours carbon-rich dust production by AGB stars. However, at ~1/3 and ~1/5 times the solar metallicity respectively, they provide two snapshots of dust composition at low metallicity, emphasising the need to investigate a region with a range of metallicity values. With its abundance gradient, the Milky Way fits this criterion and provides a good opportunity to observe the dust composition over a large metallicity range. In particular the Galactic anti-center, which is largely unexplored beyond galactocentric distances of 10 kpc, allows us to study the AGB dust a priori assumed to be metal-poor as well as exploring the extent of the Galactic abundance gradient. We analyse a Spitzer spectroscopic sample of 23 planetary nebulae towards the anti-center in order to understand how the metallicity gradient extends beyond 10 kpc from the Galactic center and to observe the dust composition in this region of our Galaxy. We find that the abundance gradients of Ne, S and Ar continue to distances of around 20 kpc (albeit with a large scatter) and the dust emission shows a carbon-rich chemistry similar to that in the Magellanic Clouds.
The fundamental reason for the presence of peatlands is a positive balance between plant production and decomposition of organic matter. Organic matter accumulates in these systems because prolonged waterlogged conditions result in soil anoxia (i.e. exclusion of oxygen), and under these conditions decomposition rates can be lower than those of primary production, as seen in Figure 8.1. Climate therefore plays an important role in peat accumulation, both directly by affecting plant productivity and decomposition of organic matter, and indirectly through its effects on hydrology, water balance and vegetation composition (for a summary, refer to Yu, Beilman and Jones (2009)). Climate provides broad-scale controls on peatland extent, types and vegetation, and ultimately, ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and storage, as well as water and hazard regulation (Chapters 4 and 5). Peatlands can therefore play a vital role in ecosystem-based adaptation in helping society mitigate and adapt to climate change.
Future climate change is likely to alter the hydrology and soil temperature of peatlands, with far-reaching consequences for their biodiversity, ecology and biogeochemistry, and interactions with the Earth system. For example, the possibility of drier conditions allowing peat erosion and increases in CO2 emissions that would result in a positive feedback to climate change (Turetsky 2010). Peatlands that have been damaged by human activity are more vulnerable to climate-induced changes in hydrology and temperature, but suitable management strategies may make them more resilient to changes and help to stabilise the delivery of ecosystem services (Chapter 1).
This chapter describes the interactions between climate and peatlands in three sections. The first section explains how present climate influences peatlands, by documenting how climate limits peatland geographical extent globally, and how bioclimatic envelope models can predict peatland extent. We indicate how each type of peatland is linked to a specific climate range, and introduce the concept of how climate controls peatland ecosystem function and services. The second section looks into the past. It describes how peat preserves a record of past climates and environmental conditions that can be deciphered to reveal the history of peatland vegetation, hydrology and carbon accumulation changes in relation to past changes in climate. We highlight lessons that can be learned from the palaeo-record preserved in peat.
Accurate data on the incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) disease are important for directing public health education and control activities. The objective of this project was to assess the underdiagnosis of WNV neuroinvasive disease through laboratory testing of patients with suspected viral meningitis or encephalitis at selected hospitals serving WNV-endemic regions in three states. Of the 279 patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens tested for WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 258 (92%) were negative, 19 (7%) were positive, and two (1%) had equivocal results. Overall, 63% (12/19) of patients with WNV IgM-positive CSF had WNV IgM testing ordered by their attending physician. Seven (37%) cases would not have been identified as probable WNV infections without the further testing conducted through this project. These findings indicate that over a third of WNV infections in patients with clinically compatible neurological illness might be undiagnosed due to either lack of testing or inappropriate testing, leading to substantial underestimates of WNV neuroinvasive disease burden. Efforts should be made to educate healthcare providers and laboratorians about the local epidemiology of arboviral diseases and the optimal tests to be used in different clinical situations.
Accurate chemical abundances for the following planetary nebulae (PNe); NGC 6537, He 2-111, NGC 6302, NGC 6445, NGC 6741, NGC 7027, NGC 7662, NGC 2440 and NGC 5315 have been derived using data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Optical data from the literature has also been used. These work has been published by Pottasch et al. (2001), Bernard Salas et al. (2001 and 2002). In particular, the use of the ISO data has reduced the need for ionization correction factors. Furthermore, infrared data avoid or reduce many problems when deriving these abundances, namely: temperature fluctuations in the nebula, and extinction corrections. The electron temperature (Te) and density of the PNe has been derived. For those PNe in which the Te has been derived for several ions a trend with the ionization potential is present. Ions with high stages of ionization give higher Te, probably because they are formed close to the central star. The chemical abundances measured in these PNe give some hint of the nucleosynthesis and mixing processes experienced by their progenitor stars. In this view, a preliminary comparison with synthetic TP-AGB models is made (Bernard Salas et al. (in prep.)). NGC 7027, NGC 6741, NGC 2440, and NGC 6445 are consistent with the occurrence of the 3rd dredge-up due to both C12 and He4 enrichment. NGC 6537, NGC 6302, and He 2-111 are likely to have stellar progenitors experiencing hot bottom burning due to the low C12 and high N14 abundances.
The far infrared nebular spectrum provides a valuable complement to the observed lines in other spectral regions. There are several reasons for this, the most important being the large increase in the number of ions observed, and the fact that the abundances found from these lines are relatively insensitive to the electron temperature. This leads to a more accurate determination of the abundances. To date, twelve PN have had abundances determined in this way. These results are summarized. The evolution of the central star is discussed in the light of these results.
The concept of dependence has been proposed as an integrative measure to assess the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD).This study aimed to investigate the association of patient's dependence level with the caregiver burden within a general theoretical model that includes other well-established determinants.
Observational and cross-sectional multicenter study. The sample consisted of patients with AD recruited in outpatient consultation offices by a convenience sampling procedure stratified by dementia severity. Cognitive and functional status, behavioral disturbances, dependence level, medical comorbidities, and caregiver burden were assessed by using standardized instruments. A path analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationships between the caregiver burden and its determinants, including the level of dependence.
The sample consisted of 306 patients (33.3% mild, 35.9% moderate, 30.7% severe), the mean age was 78.5 years (SD = 7.8), and 66.2% were women. The model fit was acceptable and explained 29% of the caregiver burden variance. Primary stressors were the level of dependence and the distress related to behavioral disturbances. Caregiver's age, gender, and co-residence with the patient were the contextual factors related to caregiver burden. The job status of the caregiver was a significant secondary stressor, functional disability was indirectly associated with caregiver burden via dependence, and frequency of behavioral disturbances was indirectly associated with the caregiver burden via distress.
Dependence was, apart from behavioral disturbances, the most important primary stressor directly related to caregiver burden irrespective of the disease severity.