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Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp–/–) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp–/– and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp–/– dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair.
Corynebacterium ulcerans (toxigenic C. ulcerans) produces the diphtheria toxin, which causes pharyngeal and cutaneous diphtheria-like disease in people, and this bacterium is commonly detected in dogs and cats that are reared at home. It is considered dangerous when a carrier animal becomes the source of infection in people. To investigate the carrier situation of toxigenic C. ulcerans of cats bred in Japan, bacteria were isolated from 37 cats with a primary complaint of rhinitis in 16 veterinary hospitals in Osaka. Toxigenic C. ulcerans was detected in two of the cats. By drug sensitivity testing, the detected bacterium was sensitive to all investigated drugs, except clindamycin. It appears necessary to create awareness regarding toxigenic C. ulcerans infection in pet owners because this bacterium is believed to be the causative organism for rhinitis in cats.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
Boron doping of single crystal silicon using an argon fluoride excimer laser with diborane gas has been performed. Diborane gas has an absorption at 193nm, which leads to gas phase photodecomposition of the diborane. Utilizing the photolyic effect, we obtained high surface concentration and ultrashallow junctions of 5×1020 cm−3 and 0.1 µm, respectively. The photolytic effect enhances the incorporation of the dopant species.
We have investigated the effect of N doping into Cu2O films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing N-doping concentration up to 3 at.%, the optical bandgap energy is enlarged from ˜2.1 to ˜2.5 eV with retaining p-type conductivity as determined by optical absorption and Hall-effect measurements. Additionally, photoelectron spectroscopy in air measurements shows an increase in the valence and conduction band shifts with N doping. These experimental results demonstrate possible optical bandgap widening of p-type N-doped Cu2O films, which is a phenomenon that is probably associated with significant structural changes induced by N doping, as suggested from x-ray diffraction measurements.
The large-scale vortex structures under spilling and plunging breakers are investigated, using a fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES). When an overturning jet projecting from the crest in a breaking wave rebounds from the water surface ahead, the vorticity becomes unstable in a saddle region of strain between the rebounding jet and a primary spanwise vortex, resulting in spanwise undulations of the vorticity. The undulations are amplified on a braid in this saddle region, leading to a vortex loop with counter-rotating vorticity. This vortex loop consequently envelops adjacent primary vortices, to form a typical rib structure. This rib component (the stretched vortex loop) in the large-scale vortex structure, which intensifies in the strains associated with the multiple primary vortices generated throughout the splash-up cycle, appears to be the previously found obliquely descending eddy.
In this paper, various Euler characteristic formulas for simplicial maps are obtained,
which generalize the Izumiya–Marar formula , the Banchoff triple point
formula  and the formula due to Szücs for maps of surfaces into 3-space
. Moreover, we obtain new results about the Euler characteristics of the multiple point sets
and the images of generic smooth maps and the numbers of their singularities.
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