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Carbon-14 (radiocarbon, 14C) is a long-lived radionuclide (5730 yr) of interest regarding the safety for the management of intermediate level wastes (ILW). The present study gives an overview of the release of 14C from irradiated Zircaloy cladding in alkaline media. 14C is found either in the alloy part of Zircaloy cladding due to the neutron activation of 14N impurities by 14N(n,p)14C reaction, or in the oxide layer (ZrO2) formed at the metal surface by the neutron activation of 17O from UO2 or (U-Pu)O2 fuel and water from the primary circuit in the reactor by 17O(n,α)14C reaction. Various irradiated and unirradiated Zircaloys have been studied. The total 14C inventory has been determined both experimentally and by calculations. The results seem to be in good agreement. Leaching experiments were conducted in alkaline media for several time durations. 14C was mainly released as carboxylic acids. Further, corrosion measurements were performed by using both hydrogen measurements and electrochemical measurements. The corrosion rate (CR) ranges from a few nm/yr to 100 nm/yr depending on the surface conditions and the method used for measurement. From a safety assessment point of view, the instant release fraction (IRF) was determined on irradiated Zircaloy-2. The results showed that the 14C inventory in the oxide was significantly below the 20% commonly used in safety case assessments.
The Neolithic transition is a particularly favorable field of research for the study of the emergence and evolution of cultures and cultural phenomena. In this framework, high-precision chronologies are essential for decrypting the rhythms of emergence of new techno-economic traits. As part of a project exploring the conditions underlying the emergence and dynamics of the development of the first agro-pastoral societies in the Western Mediterranean, this paper proposes a new chronological modeling. Based on 45 new radiocarbon (14C) dates and on a Bayesian statistical framework, this work examines the rhythms and dispersal paths of the Neolithic economy both on coastal and continental areas. These new data highlight a complex and far less unidirectional dissemination process than that envisaged so far.
A study was carried out, from 2012 to 2015, in 10 French départements to estimate the serological prevalence of Q fever and the frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to Coxiella burnetii in a large sample of cattle, sheep and goat herds. The serological survey covered 731 cattle, 522 sheep and 349 goat herds, randomly sampled. The frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to C. burnetii was estimated by investigating series of abortions in 2695 cattle, 658 sheep and 105 goat herds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses and complementary serological results when needed. The average between-herd seroprevalence was significantly lower for cattle (36·0%) than for sheep (55·7%) and goats (61·0%) and significantly higher for dairy herds (64·9% for cattle and 75·6% for sheep) than for meat herds (18·9% for cattle and 39·8% for sheep). Within-herd seroprevalence was also significantly higher for goats (41·5%) than for cattle (22·2%) and sheep (25·7%). During the study period, we estimated that 2·7% (n = 90), 6·2% (n = 48) and 16·7% (n = 19) of the abortive episodes investigated could be ‘potentially related to C. burnetii’in cattle, sheep and goat herds, respectively. Overall, strong variability was observed between départements and species, suggesting that risk factors such as herd density and farming practices play a role in disease transmission and maintenance.
Objectives: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study, a total of 241 high-school seniors (147 females, 94 males) diagnosed with T1D underwent baseline assessment that included the IGT. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects glycemic control over the course of the past 2 to 3 months, was also assessed at baseline. Of the 241,189 (127 females, 62 males, mean age=17.76, mean HbA1c=8.11) completed HbA1c measurement 1 year later. Results: Baseline IGT performance in the impaired range (per norms) was associated with greater dysregulation in glycemic control 1 year later, as evidenced by an average increase in HbA1c of 2%. Those with normal IGT scores (per norms) exhibited a more moderate increase in glycemic control, with an HbA1c increase of 0.7%. Several IGT scoring approaches were compared, showing that the total scores collapsed across all trials was most sensitive to change in glycemic control. Conclusions: IGT assessment offers promise as a tool for identifying late adolescents at increased risk for glycemic dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 204–213)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression but the extent and persistence of cognitive side-effects remain uncertain. It has been reported that there is little evidence that impairments last longer than up to 15 days post-ECT. However, relatively few studies have followed patients for even as long as 1 month post-ECT. Here we report results from a brief cognitive battery given prior to ECT and repeated five times up to 6 months post-ECT.
In a retrospective case-note study of routinely collected clinical data 126 patients treated with ECT completed two neuropsychological tests [Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) spatial recognition memory (SRM) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)] and two subjective reports of memory function, prior to ECT. Patients were reassessed following ECT and at 1, 3 and 6 months post-ECT although not all patients completed all assessments.
Performance relative to pre-ECT baseline was significantly poorer at each post-ECT assessment up to 3 months post-ECT using the CANTAB SRM, but was improved at 6 months. Conversely, MMSE score showed improvements relative to baseline from 1 month post-ECT. Mood and subjective memory scores improved following ECT and were correlated with one another, but not with either neuropsychological measure.
The CANTAB SRM task revealed reversible cognitive deficiencies relative to a pre-ECT baseline for at least 3 months following ECT, while MMSE score and patients' subjective reports showed only improvement. Visuospatial memory scores eventually exceeded baseline 6 months post-ECT.
We present new high-resolution observations and modeling of SSTtau J042021+ 281349, a 400 AU-radius edge-on protoplanetary disk. We have gathered visible and near-infrared scattered light images of the system with the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck adaptive optics system, as well as a 1.3 mm continuum map with CARMA. Compared to the well-known HH 30 disk, this new system is remarkable because of its spectacular bipolar jet and the high degree of lateral symmetry of the disk. Indeed, we argue that this system is a “cleaner” prototype for edge-on disks. In addition, the apparent achromaticity of dust properties (most notably the almost grey opacity law) from the visible to the near-infrared in this disk suggests that it is in an advanced stage of dust evolution.
We present detailed models of the edge-on protoplanetary disk ESO Hα 569 (SSTgbs J111110.7-764157) from resolved scattered light images from HST and a complete spectral energy distribution. Data was obtained as part of an HST campaign to catalogue edge-on disks around young stars in nearby star forming regions (HST program 12514, PI: Karl Stapelfeldt). We confirm that this object is an optically thick edge-on disk around a young star with an outer radius of 125 AU. Using full radiative transfer models, we probe the distribution of dust grains and overall shape of the disk (inclination, scale height, dust mass, maximum particle size, inner radius, flaring exponent and surface/volume density exponent).
Polycrystalline silicon films (5 to 30 μm thick) have been deposited on glass substrates at low temperatures (400–550 °C) with a rate of 15 Å/s by hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD). The homogeneity of the deposited layer is ±5% on a 8 cm diameter substrate. The films have columnar microstructure and a textured surface. The undoped films (carrier concentration, 1011 cm−3) have a resistivity of 105-106 Ω-cm, activation energy of 0.50 ± 0.05 eV and Hall mobility of 14 ± 4 cm2 /V.s. By in situ gas phase doping, resistivity can be varied by six to seven orders of magnitude. Incorporation of dopant atoms such as boron into the film, strongly influences its morphological and crystallographic structure. The mobility lifetime product of undoped films is low (10−8 cm2/V), possibly due to the presence of a high density of dangling bonds defects and broad band-tails. This product can be improved by a factor of 5 to 10 by using in-situ hydrogen passivation in the same reactor at lower temperature (350–400 °C) within one hour. The results of many complementary experiments suggest that hydrogen treatment mainly improves carrier mobility by a factor of 3 to 4 by passivating extended defects. Preliminary results on application of these types of materials in unoptimized P-I-N solar cells on c-Si and glass substrates are presented.
Mid-infrared photoconductivity (PC) is a useful technique for identifying and investigating donor and acceptor centers in many semiconductors. This is especially true when the PC results are combined with other measurements such as Hall Effect and DLTS. We report on the first Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) photoconductivity spectra for n-type 6H and 4H-SiC. The samples studied had temperature dependent Hall activation energies around 45 meV and 85 meV in the 4H samples, and a single activation energy of 106 meV in the 6H. For the 4H samples, the PC spectra showed an increase in photoresponse between 40 and 47 meV, with another sharp increase at 120 meV. In the 6H-SiC, the photoresponse also had a rapid increase at 120 meV, and at 77 meV in one sample. The photoresponse spectra of the n-type 4H and 6H-SiC samples were distinctly different in the mid-infrared.
Textured polycrystalline silicon films with columnar structure have been deposited on glass at low temperature (400–550°C) and high deposition rate (10 to 15 Å/s) by hot-wire chemical vapour deposition using SiH4-H2 gases. The homogeneity of the deposited layer is ± 5% on a 8 cm diameter. As deposited films have a poor photoconductivity. However hydrogen confinement in the films during the deposition or after the deposition is found to be the key for obtaining g.tc/poly-Si with a significant diffusion length. Eventually reasonable values of the mobility lifetime product (> 10−7 cm2/V) are obtained by in situ hydrogen passivation of poly-Si films after deposition. Efficient shifting of the Fermi level is achieved by in situ B or P doping. The incorporation of boron in poly-Si network strongly influences the morphology and the crystalline structure. Undoped films have a Hall mobility of 14 ± 5 cm2/V.s which decreases versus the carrier concentration.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
In this communication we illustrate the main steps required for the preprocessing of the Lyot Project Coronagraph data, starting from the raw data to the reduced data.
We then discuss the estimation of the performance on direct, unocculted data, by measuring the Strehl Ratio on these images. We show that Strehl Ratios of the order of 80% can be obtained for the best images in the H Band, using the AEOS telescope adaptive optics, and the Kermit infrared camera.
We then present a few methods to estimate the dynamic range in coronagraphic images, and their results are discussed.
Clogging of Continuous Casting nozzle has a detrimental effect
on productivity and product quality; it also increases production
costs and goes against security. Many factors contribute to the
clogging phenomenon, including the detailed process parameters
of continuous casting and secondary metallurgy. Clogging can be effectively limited by Argon injection that is
usually performed through the stopper rod. The nature and
quality of the refractory equipment is another factor that must be
considered carefully. The clogging mechanism has been clearly
ascribed to the level and nature of non metallic inclusions, thus to
the secondary metallurgy process. Effective counter measures that have been successfully
implemented in Arcelor to achieve long sequence casting are