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Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
Children of parents with major mood and psychotic disorders are at increased risk of psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. It has been suggested that the risk of psychosis may be more often transmitted from parent to opposite-sex offspring (e.g., from father to daughter) than to same-sex offspring (e.g., from father to son). To test whether sex-specific transmission extends to early manifestations of psychosis, we examined sex-specific contributions to psychotic symptoms among offspring of mothers and fathers with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We assessed psychotic symptoms in 309 offspring (160 daughters and 149 sons) aged 8–24 years (mean=13.1, s.d.=4.3), of whom 113 had a mother with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression and 43 had a father with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression. In semi-structured interviews, 130 (42%) offspring had definite psychotic symptoms established and confirmed by psychiatrists on one or more assessments. We tested the effects of mental illness in parents on same-sex and opposite-sex offspring psychotic symptoms in mixed-effect logistic regression models. Psychotic symptoms were more prevalent among daughters of affected fathers and sons of affected mothers than among offspring of the same sex as their affected parent. Mental illness in the opposite-sex parent increased the odds of psychotic symptoms (odds ratio (OR)=2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–4.91, P=0.002), but mental illness in the same-sex parent did not have a significant effect on psychotic symptoms in offspring (OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.61–2.07, P=0.697). The opposite-sex-specific parent-of-origin effects may suggest X chromosome-linked genetic transmission or inherited chromosomal modifications in the etiology of psychotic symptoms.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent a disease continuum with common genetic causes and molecular pathology. We recently identified mutations in the T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) protein as a cause of ALS +/− FTD. TIA1 is an RNA-binding protein containing a low complexity domain (LCD) that promotes the assembly of membrane-less organelles, such as stress granules (SG). Whole exome sequencing of two family members with fALS/FTD revealed a novel missense mutation in the TIA1 LCD (P362L). Subsequent screening identified five more TIA1 mutations in six additional ALS patients, but none in controls. All mutation carriers presented with weakness, behavioral abnormalities or language impairments and had a final diagnosis of ALS +/− FTD. Autopsy on five TIA1 mutation carriers showed widespread neurodegeneration with TDP-43 pathology. Round eosinophilic inclusions in lower motor neurons were a consistent feature. Cellular assays revealed abnormal SG dynamics in the presence of TIA1 mutations. In summary, missense mutations in the LCD of TIA1 are a newly recognized cause of ALS/FTD with TDP-43 pathology and strengthen the role of RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis in this disease.
Introduction: Aeromedical helicopters and fixed wing aircraft are used across Canada to transfer patients to definitive care. Given height limitation in aeromedical transport, CPR performance can be affected. An adapted manual compression technique has been proposed by H. Koch (pron. Cook) that uses the elbow to compress the sternum rather than the conventional hand. This preliminary study evaluated the quality of Koch compressions versus conventional bimanual compressions. Methods: Paramedics (5), registered nurses (3) and a physician (1) were recruited. Each participant performed a 2 minute cycle of each technique, were randomized to determine which technique was performed first, and rested 5 minutes between compression cycles. A Resusci Anne SkillReporter manikin atop a stretcher in a BK117 helicopter was used. The compressors performed without feedback or prompting. Outcomes include compression rate, depth, recoil, and fatigue. Results: The mean conventional compression rate was (bpm) 118 +/− 13 versus 111 +/− 10 in the Koch scenario (p=0.02) (target 100 to 120). Mean conventional compression depth (mm) was 44 +/− 9 versus 49 +/− 7 in the Koch scenario (p=0.01) (target 50 to 60). The mean percentage of compressions with complete release in the conventional scenario was 86 +/− 20 versus 84 +/− 22 in the Koch scenario (p=0.9) (target 100%). Using a Modified Borg Scale of 1 to 10, mean provider fatigue after conventional CPR was 7 (+/− 1.6) versus 3 (+/− 1.2) using Koch technique (p<0.001). On average, Koch technique improved the percentage of compressions at target rate by 26%, the percentage at correct depth by 9%, overall compression quality score by 13% and were more less fatiguing. Conclusion: Using an elbow in a height-restricted environment improved compression depth and reduced provider fatigue. From our limited data, Koch compressions appear to improve compression quality. Further study and external validation are required.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential components of cellular membranes and are associated with prostaglandin synthesis. Supplementing ewes with long-chain PUFAs during gestation has been demonstrated to increase gestation length and improve lamb vigour (Capper et al., 2002). Furthermore, increasing the dietary vitamin E supplied to pregnant ewes is reported to increase lamb growth rate (Gentry et al., 1992). However, fish oil supplementation during lactation may reduce milk component yield and lamb growth rate (Capper et al., 2002). The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary long-chain PUFA and vitamin E supplementation of pregnant ewes on lamb performance.
It is reported that supplementing pregnant ewes with supra-optimal levels of vitamin E improves neonatal lamb vigour and growth rate (Merrell, 1998). The biochemical mechanism behind these observations has yet to be elucidated as several studies report negligible placental vitamin E transfer in ruminants (Van Saun et al., 1989); consequently, lambs may be clinically deficient in this nutrient at birth and achieve a satisfactory vitamin E status via colostrum ingestion. Lamb vitamin E status may be further diminished by the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to the maternal diet. However, PUFA supplementation demonstrably enhances foetal and neonatal development in human studies (Morley, 1998) although these effects have not been investigated in ruminants to any depth. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E in combination with long-chain PUFA supplementation of ewes on ewe and lamb performance.
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and are vital for its correct development and for that of the nervous system (Huang and Craig-Schmidt, 1996). Ruminant diets are low in DHA and its precursor alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, dietary PUFAs are substantially hydrogenated in the rumen. Consequently, it may be argued that the diets of pregnant and lactating ewes may be deficient in DHA and that a response to supplementation may be observed. Studies involving the supplementation of pregnant ewes with supraoptimal levels of vitamin E have shown that lambs born to supplemented dams are more vigorous immediately after birth and have higher liveweight gains (Merrell, 1998). The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary long-chain PUFA in combination with vitamin E supplementation of ewes on ewe and lamb performance.
The current use of antibiotics in weaner pig diets is likely to be banned from 2006, and alternatives are sought to improve growth and health status of weaner pigs. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are mainly known from the brewing industry, but they are also known for their antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties (Stevens et al., 1998). Hops may be a suitable alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters, particularly when pigs are not able to maximise their growth potential, for example when fed low density rations. The objective of the trial was to investigate the effects of hops on newly weaned piglets on growth performance, liver function and microbiology in diets of different nutrient density.
Bentonite is one of the more safety-critical components of the engineered barrier system in the disposal concepts developed for many types of radioactive waste. It is used due to its favourable properties (including plasticity, swelling capacity, colloid filtration, low hydraulic conductivity, high retardation of key radionuclides) and its stability in relevant geological environments. However, bentonite is unstable under alkaline conditions and this has driven interest in low-alkali cements (leachate pH of 10–11). To build a robust safety case, it is important to have supporting natural analogue data to confirm understanding of the likely long-term performance of bentonite. In Cyprus, the presence of natural bentonite in close proximity to natural alkaline groundwaters permits the zones of potential bentonite/alkaline water reaction to be studied as an analogy of the potential reaction zones in the repository. Here, the results indicate minimal volumetric reaction of bentonite, with production of a palygorskite secondary phase.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have the highest co-morbidity rates within the internalizing disorders cluster, yet no Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programme exists for their combined treatment.
We designed a six-lesson therapist-assisted iCBT programme for mixed anxiety and depression. Study 1 was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the iCBT programme (n = 46) versus wait-list control (WLC; n = 53) for patients diagnosed by structured clinical interview with MDD, GAD or co-morbid GAD/MDD. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale (depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale (generalized anxiety), Kessler 10-item Psychological Distress scale (distress) and 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (disability). The iCBT group was followed up at 3 months post-treatment. In study 2, we investigated the adherence to, and efficacy of the same programme in a primary care setting, where patients (n = 136) completed the programme under the supervision of primary care clinicians.
The RCT showed that the iCBT programme was more effective than WLC, with large within- and between-groups effect sizes found (>0.8). Adherence was also high (89%), and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. In study 2 in primary care, adherence to the iCBT programme was low (41%), yet effect sizes were large (>0.8). Of the non-completers, 30% experienced benefit.
Together, the results show that iCBT is effective and adherence is high in research settings, but there is a problem of adherence when translated into the ‘real world’. Future efforts need to be placed on developing improved adherence to iCBT in primary care settings.
To estimate the proportion of patients who acquire methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) while in hospital and to identify risk factors associated with acquisition of MRSA.
Retrospective cohort study.
Adult patients discharged from 36 general specialty wards of 2 Scottish hospitals that had implemented universal screening for MRSA on admission.
Patients were screened for MRSA on discharge from hospital by using multisite body swabs that were tested by culture. Discharge screening results were linked to admission screening results. Genotyping was undertaken to identify newly acquired MRSA in MRSA-positive patients on admission.
Of the 5,155 patients screened for MRSA on discharge, 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.43–3.34) were found to be positive. In the subcohort screened on both admission and discharge (n = 2,724), 1.3% of all patients acquired MRSA while in hospital (incidence rate, 2.1/1,000 hospital bed-days in this cohort [95% CI, 1.5–2.9]), while 1.3% remained MRSA positive throughout hospital stay. Three risk factors for acquisition of MRSA were identified: age above 64 years, self-reported renal failure, and self-reported presence of open wounds. On a population level, the prevalence of MRSA colonization did not differ between admission and discharge.
Cross-transmission of MRSA takes place in Scottish hospitals that have implemented universal screening for MRSA. This study reinforces the importance of infection prevention and control measures to prevent MRSA cross-transmission in hospitals; universal screening for MRSA on admission will in itself not be sufficient to reduce the number of MRSA colonizations and subsequent MRSA infections.
Characterising the morphology of thin films for use in device applications requires the ability to study both the structure within the plane of the film, and also through its thickness. Environmental scanning electron microscopy has proved to be a fruitful technique for the study of such films both because contrast can be seen within the film without the need for staining (as is conventionally done for electron microscopy), and because cross-sectional images can be obtained without charging artefacts. The application of ESEM to a particular blend of relevance to photovoltaics is described.
The synthesis and characterization of several polymeric titanates and their conversion to carbon deficient TiC is described. The physical properties of one of these titanates allows it to be drawn into fibers and applied to substrates as thin films. Pyrolysis of these fibers and films to carbon deficient TiC is described.
Hydrogen is found to readily diffuse into InGaN, InAIN and InGaAIN epitaxial layers during plasma exposures at 170 – 250 °C for 40 sec - 30 min. The diffusivity of hydrogen is > 10−11 cm2-s−1 at 170 °C, and the native donor species are passivated by association with the hydrogen. Reactivation of these species occurs at 450–500°C, but the hydrogen remains in the material until ≥ 800 °C.
Atom-probe techniques have been used to characterise nanostructured metallic materials prepared by thermal evaporation and by sputtering. Multilayer samples of Fe-Cr have been prepared by sputter deposition and analysed using the Oxford position-sensitive atom probe. This has made it possible to observe the quality of interfaces in the material, and also accurately determine local compositions at each layer within the multilayer stack. Preliminary experiments aimed at producing dual phase nanocrystalline films by thermal evaporator deposition are also reported.
Amorphous SiC was prepared by firing the polycarbosilane to various temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1200°C. However the l3c CPMAS NMR and ESR studies show that the carbon rich SiC has two major structural defects, C=C bonds and C-dangling bonds. Both defects concentrations vary with different sample firing conditions. Hydrogen has dramatic effect on decreasing the defect concentrations when used in the sample firing.
In-situ measurements of diffuse light scattering at λ = 457 nm are reported from the surface of GaAs films during growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Three different scattering angles are measured simultaneously corresponding to spatial frequencies in the surface roughness of q = 0.9, 12, and 17 μm−1. During growth the initial surface roughness caused by the oxide desorption decreases at high spatial frequencies and increases at low spatial frequency. The low spatial frequency roughness corresponding to scattering vectors parallel to  increases more rapidly during growth than for scattering parallel to .
The composition and fabrication of a high strength cementbased composite containing graded stainless steel aggregate and fine silica are described. The microstructure, physical properties and temperature cycling durability of this material are examined and some examples are given of technological applications as a molding/tooling material.
Thermal stability of a novel rubbery ORMOSIL of condensed tetraethoxysilane
(TEOS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was investigated along with methods
by which to improve this stability. Based upon literature review of siloxane
systems, modifications of the base ORMOSIL system was made which included
substitution of polydimethyldiphenylsiloxane (PDMDPS) for PDMS, adding
antioxidant, and adding iron compounds. Relative enhancement was
investigated in terms of resilience measurements, and was also analyzed with
thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal anaysis