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Reducing multifactorial stunting is a priority for the 2025 WHO Global Nutrition Target. In the plant-based complementary diets of low-income countries, deficits in several growth-limiting micronutrients may contribute to stunting. Hence the intercorrelation between multiple micronutrients in terms of their intake and impact is important. Therefore, our aim was to develop a nutrient quality score using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of Indonesian infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age and to evaluate the association of the scores with linear growth and stunting. At 6 months, 217 infants were recruited from Sumedang District, West Java, with 195 and 189 followed at 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. Complementary food intakes were assessed using 2-d weighed food records. Eight correlated nutrients (vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, Ca, Fe and Zn) were summarised using PCA into a single nutrient pattern that explained 56–65 % of the total variability. Nutrient quality scores were related to demographic, inflammation and complementary food indicator variables in hypothesised directions. While no significant relationships were apparent with linear growth, the odds of being stunted at ages 9 and 12 months was lower for infants with a higher nutrient quality score at 9 months (OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·59, 0·95 and OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·88), respectively, for the fully adjusted models. A data-driven nutrient quality score is a valid tool to assess the influence of nutrient quality on stunting in at-risk infants.
Spectroscopic data from a var iety of analyt ical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) can be obtained from small areas of samples (< 1 mm2) through the use of microscope sampling accessories. If provisions are made to scan or translate the sample, then a spectrum that is characteristic of each region of interest can be obtained. Alternatively, selective area detectors eliminate the requirement for scanning the sample. Extract ion of information about a specific energy band from each spectrum allows elucidat ion of the spatial distribution of the feature giving rise to that band. For example, the distribution of a compound could be imaged by extracting the intensity of an IR band or XRD peak due to that compound. Peak posit ion and peak width are other parameters that can be extracted as a function of posit ion. Similarly, elemental distributions could be obtained using SIMS and EDX.
Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Compared with unadjusted values, regression adjustment at 6, 9 and 12 months generated the lowest (P<0·001) geometric mean (GM) for serum ferritin (26·5, 14·7, 10·8 μg/l) and the highest GM for serum retinol-binding protein (0·95, 1·00, 1·01 μmol/l) and Zn (11·8, 11·0, 11·5 μmol/l). As a consequence, at 6, 9 and 12 months regression adjustment yielded the highest prevalence of Fe deficiency (20·3, 37·8, 59·5 %) and the lowest prevalence of vitamin A (26·4,16·6, 17·3 %) and Zn (16·9, 20·6, 11·0 %) deficiency, respectively. For serum Se, irrespective of adjustment, GM were low (regression: 0·73, 0·78, 0·81 μmol/l) with prevalence of deficiency >50 % across all ages. In conclusion, without inflammation adjustment, Fe deficiency was grossly under-estimated and vitamin A and Zn deficiency over-estimated, highlighting the importance of correcting for the influence of such, before implementing programmes to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. However, further work is needed to validate the proposed approaches with a particular focus on assessing the influence of varying degrees of inflammation (i.e. recurrent acute infections and low-grade chronic inflammation) on each affected nutrient biomarker.
Concern over the use of prophylactic antibiotics and the potential of them being banned has increased interest in other methods of controlling disease. Specifically postweaning diarrhoea in the pig, often associated with E Coli (F4 K88ac) is a candidate for an alternative strategy. If in-feed additives can be demonstrated which effectively block the binding of the F4 (K88)ac pilli to the surface of the pig enterocytes then the severe form of the disease could be controlled without the use of antibiotics. The work reported here provides a screening method to determine whether potential in-feed additives can block the binding of purified F4(K88)ac to isolated brush border membranes taken from neonatal F4(K88)ac positive pigs.
Martian Meteorite ALH84001 contains four unusual features which have been interpreted as possible signatures of relic biogenic activity. After six years of intense study by the world's scientific community, the current status of the biogenic hypothesis is reviewed and shown to still be valid. Furthermore additional features have been observed in two younger Martian meteorites. The strongest argument for possible evidence of biogenic activity within the ALH84001 meteorite is the presence of truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals which are only known on Earth to be the products of biology.
Background: Approximately 12-15% of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IA) have affected first-degree relatives, and are considered to have familial intracranial aneurysms (FIA). Individuals with FIA are at higher risk for aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage. THSD1 is the only gene to be associated with nonsyndromic FIA at this time. Our study aims to find rare DNA variants that are major risk factors for FIA in our cohort of patients. Methods: To date we have enrolled 37 affected and 31 unaffected people from 16 families. We have done exome or genome sequencing on at least 1 person from each of 12 families. Results: A rare p.(R686W) variant in THSD1 was found in 1/12 families, but did not cosegregate fully with disease. While less attractive as the primary cause of FIA, we cannot rule out the potential modifying effects of THSD1 p.(R686W) in this family. A second candidate, an extracellular matrix gene within a chromosomal region previously implicated by familial mapping studies, contains rare variants in 4/12 of our families. All four variants are predicted to be damaging. Conclusions: Alongside environmental risk factors, individual FIA families may also have complex rare variant contributions to their disease, such as digenic and multi-locus contributions.
After more than half a century of community support related to the science of “solar activity”, IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.
We have mapped cold atomic gas in 21cm line H i self-absorption (HISA) at arcminute resolution over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have compared our HISA distribution with CO J = 1-0 line emission. Few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA has overlapping CO. But many apparent inner-Galaxy HISA-CO associations can be explained as chance superpositions, so most inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Since standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain the very cold H i in many HISA features without molecules being present, these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2.
This is a summary account, based on a detailed report first published in Libya Antiqua, of the so-called ‘Market Theatre’ complex. This complex comprises a number of closely linked structures situated near the heart of ancient Cyrene and was excavated by the late R. G. Goodchild in the 1950s. After his death, it was resurveyed for publication in 1971. The various component structures (the ‘Market’, the Stepped Street, the ‘Forehall’, the Valley Street frontage, the Propylon, the Building with the Windswept Capitals and the Theatre) are described in the context of three broad periods of construction observed in this area.
Goodchild's original interpretation of the main porticoed building as a market, rather than as a temple precinct is defended, as is his belief that the late Roman theatre exhibited only one period of construction. The single closely datable structure is the Severan propylon, but, from observed structural relationships and architectural similarities, some suggestions are made as to the chronology of development in this quarter of Cyrene.
This summary presents the main results of three seasons of survey and limited excavation work carried out by the Society at Ptolemais in Eastern Libya. The survey concentrated on two major town houses which had been partially excavated by Richard Goodchild (House G and House T), whilst excavation was carried out on the adjacent site known as the North-east Quadrant. All of the sites revealed complex structural histories and it is evident that in this quarter of Ptolemais, at least, life within the town continued well into the Islamic period.
The FORWARD SolarSoft IDL package is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD allows the synthesis of coronal polarimetric signals at visible, infrared, and radio frequencies, and will soon be augmented for ultraviolet polarimetry. In this paper we focus on observations of the infrared (IR) forbidden lines of Fe XIII, and describe how FORWARD may be used to directly access these data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (MLSO/CoMP), to put them in the context of other space- and ground-based observations, and to compare them to synthetic observables generated from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models.
Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere provide the energy for most varieties of solar activity, including high-energy electromagnetic radiation, solar energetic particles, flares, and coronal mass ejections, as well as powering the solar wind. Despite the fundamental role of magnetic fields in solar and heliospheric physics, there exist only very limited measurements of the field above the base of the corona. What is needed are direct measurements of not only the strength and orientation of the magnetic field but also the signatures of wave motions in order to better understand coronal structure, solar activity, and the role of MHD waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind. Fortunately, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make magnetic field measurements is also well suited to measure the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. We present here a mission concept for the Waves And Magnetism In the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) experiment which is proposed for a NASA long-duration balloon flight.
A range of peer worker roles are being introduced into mental health services internationally. There is some evidence that attests to the benefits of peer workers for the people they support but formal trial evidence in inconclusive, in part because the change model underpinning peer support-based interventions is underdeveloped. Complex intervention evaluation guidance suggests that understandings of how an intervention is associated with change in outcomes should be modelled, theoretically and empirically, before the intervention can be robustly evaluated. This paper aims to model the change mechanisms underlying peer worker interventions.
In a qualitative, comparative case study of ten peer worker initiatives in statutory and voluntary sector mental health services in England in-depth interviews were carried out with 71 peer workers, service users, staff and managers, exploring their experiences of peer working. Using a Grounded Theory approach we identified core processes within the peer worker role that were productive of change for service users supported by peer workers.
Key change mechanisms were: (i) building trusting relationships based on shared lived experience; (ii) role-modelling individual recovery and living well with mental health problems; (iii) engaging service users with mental health services and the community. Mechanisms could be further explained by theoretical literature on role-modelling and relationship in mental health services. We were able to model process and downstream outcomes potentially associated with peer worker interventions.
An empirically and theoretically grounded change model can be articulated that usefully informs the development, evaluation and planning of peer worker interventions.
Collisional fluid mechanics theory predicts a turbulent hot big bang at Planck conditions from large, negative, turbulence stresses below the Fortov-Kerr limit (< −10113Pa). Big bang turbulence fossilized when quarks formed, extracting the mass energy of the universe by extreme negative viscous stresses of inflation, expanding to length scales larger than the horizon scale ct. Viscous-gravitational structure formation by fragmentation was triggered at big bang fossil vorticity turbulence vortex lines during the plasma epoch, as observed by the Planck space telescope. A cosmic web of protogalaxies, protogalaxyclusters, and protogalaxysuperclusters that formed in turbulent boundary layers of the spinning voids are hereby identified as expanding turbulence fossils that falsify CDMHC cosmology.