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We explored whether supported (SJE) or coordinated joint engagement (CJE) between mothers recruited from the community and their 24-month-old children who were slow-to-talk at 18 months old were associated with child language scores at ages 24, 36, and 48 months (n = 197). We further explored whether SJE or CJE modified the concurrent positive associations between maternal responsive behaviours and language scores. Previous research has shown that SJE, maternal expansions, imitations, and responsive questions were associated with better language scores. Our main finding was that SJE but not CJE was consistently positively associated with 24- and 36-month-old expressive and receptive language scores, but not with 48-month-old language scores. SJE modified how expansions and imitations, but not responsive questions, were associated with language scores; the associations were evident in all but the highest levels of SJE. Further research is necessary to test these findings in other samples before clinical recommendations can be made.
Six snow-pit records recovered from Siple Dome, West Antarctica, during 1994 are used to study seasonal variations in chemical (major ion and H202), isotopic (deuterium) and physical stratigraphic properties during the 1988-94 period. Comparison of δD measurements and satellite-derived brightness temperature for the Siple Dome area suggests that most seasonal SD maxima occur within ±4 weeks of each 1 January. Several other chemical species (H2O2, non-sea-salt (nss) SO42-, methanesulfonic acid and NO3-) show coeval peaks with SD, together providing an accurate method for identifying summer accumulation. Sea-salt-derived species generally peak during winter/spring, but episodic input is noted throughout some years. No reliable seasonal signal is identified in species with continental sources (nssCa2+ nss Mg2+), NH4+ or nssCl-. Visible strata such as large depth-hoar layers (>5 cm) are associated with summer accumulation and its metamorphosis, but smaller hoar layers and crusts are more difficult to interpret. A multi-parameter approach is found to provide the most accurate dating of these snow-pit records, and is used to determine annual layer thicknesses at each site Significant spatial accumulation variability exists on an annual basis, but mean accumulation in the sampled 10 km2 grid for the 1988-94 period is fairly uniform.
Simultaneous VLBI observations of the SiO masers of the J = 1 → 0 rotational line in the v = 1 and v = 2 vibrational levels toward Mira variables are presented. Because SiO maser lines are formed deep in circumstellar envelopes they serve as a unique tool to study the innermost envelopes of evolved stars. Although the first interpretation of SiO maser emission was made in 1974, observational features are only partially explained by models which have been suggested since then. Positional coincidence of the J = 1 → 0 masers of v = 1 and v = 2 has been argued as a way to distinguish among the maser pumping models, but it requires simultaneous observations of the two lines using high resolution. We have developed the technique for such observations during the last few years and here we report successful results of our simultaneous observations of the SiO v = 1 and v = 2 J = 1 → 0 masers using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We discuss the pumping mechanism in terms of our observational results.
Effects of soil tillage systems and nitrogen (N) fertilizer management on spring wheat yield components, grain yield and N-use efficiency (NUE) were evaluated in contrasting weather of 2013 and 2014 on a clay soil at the Royal Agricultural University's Harnhill Manor Farm, Cirencester, UK. Three tillage systems – conventional plough tillage (CT), high intensity non-inversion tillage (HINiT) and low intensity non-inversion tillage (LINiT) for seedbed preparation – were compared at four rates of N fertilizer (0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha). Responses to the effects of the management practices were strongly influenced by weather conditions and varied across seasons. Grain yields were similar between LINiT and CT in 2013, while CT produced higher yields in 2014. Nitrogen fertilization effects also varied across the years with no significant effects observed on grain yield in 2013, while in 2014 applications up to 140 kg N/ha increased yield. Grain protein ranged from 10·1 to 14·5% and increased with N rate in both years. Nitrogen-use efficiency ranged from 12·6 to 49·1 kg grain per kg N fertilizer and decreased as N fertilization rate increased in both years. There was no tillage effect on NUE in 2013, while in 2014 NUE under CT was similar to LINiT and higher than HINiT. The effect of tillage and N fertilization on soil moisture and soil mineral N (SMN) fluctuated across years. In 2013, LINiT showed significantly higher soil moisture than CT, while soil moisture did not differ between tillage systems in 2014. Conventional tillage had significantly higher SMN at harvest time in 2014, while no significant differences on SMN were observed between tillage systems in 2013. These results indicate that LINiT can be used to produce similar spring wheat yield to CT on this particular soil type, if a dry cropping season is expected. Crop response to N fertilization is limited when soil residual N is higher, while in conditions of lower residual SMN, a higher N supply is needed to increase yield and improve grain protein content.
This study introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (Gershon, Wagster et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first study in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test–retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One study in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
Two late prehistoric circular enclosure settlements near Harlech, Gwynedd were excavated by the Gwynedd Archaeological Trust in 1980–81 in advance of upland pasture improvements. Both produced evidence for the change from timber to mainly stone as a building material, commonplace in upland Britain at this time. At Moel y Gerddi there was some evidence for earlier activity in the Neolithic period, but the principal occupation occurred in the mid-first millennium BC, and comprised a roughly circular timber palisade enclosing a fairly substantial timber roundhouse. As these structures deteriorated, they were consolidated and embanked with stone, but despite this the occupation did not last very long and the site was abandoned. Erw-wen a short distance away produced similar evidence but there was no Neolithic phase and the site was re-used in the Medieval period. The principal late prehistoric settlement there comprised a single large roundhouse standing within an imposing enclosure wall but whether or not this had been preceded by a timber palisade is not known. It was clear, however, that the stone roundhouse was a replacement for an earlier timber counterpart and, quite unlike Moel y Gerddi, the occupation lasted a considerable period of time, possibly two or even three centuries. Dating evidence from either site was poor, and acid soil conditions mitigated against the preservation of most finds. The sites were apparently aceramic and probably relied on pastoralism rather than arable farming. The environmental setting and background has been considered in some detail in the preceding paper with particular reference to soil pollen studies and a bog core dug near Moel y Gerddi. Typologically the sites belong to the Gwynedd stone-built hut-circle settlements and it is argued that they could mark the first appearance of these monuments in the landscape. But in any case, the use of timber as witnessed here, was far more commonplace than has previously been supposed on these sites.
The partial excavation under rescue conditions in 1961–63 of the ditches and
interior of an enclosure of the earlier neolithic period is described. The
enclosure, covering a total area of approximately 2.4 ha, was defined by
double concentric interrupted ditches, which were for the most part
naturally filled. There were many traces of activity within the interior,
presumed to be contemporary with the ditches, including pits, gullies, post-
and stake-holes, and varying concentrations of struck and burnt flint and
pottery. Human burials were found. There is a little Ebbsfleet pottery in
secondary contexts and there are later prehistoric, Roman and medieval
finds. It is probably not possible to ascribe a single or specific role to
the site, which may have been important as a place where several activities
were concentrated, including occupation, subsistence, exchange, enclosure or
defence, burial and ritual.
People with dementia living in residential care often face the dual disadvantage of increasing difficulty with communication and reduced opportunities for conversation. Social interaction is central to wellbeing of residents with dementia, so it is important that care staff have the skills to engage in conversation with them. We studied conversations in 20 care staff–resident dyads, to examine conversation structure and content, patterns of engagement within conversations, including the topics around which engagement occurred, and communication behaviours by care staff that appeared to facilitate (or impede) participation by residents. The transcripts were analysed using Discursis, a computational information visualisation tool that allows interactive visual inspection, in context, of the contributions by each speaker, the turn-taking dynamics, and the content recurring within and between speakers. We present case examples (a) where care staff did most of the talking, initiated topics and were responsible for most recurrence of content; (b) where talk was more evenly shared between partners, with some topics initiated and/or elaborated by participants with dementia; and (c) where participants with dementia talked most, with care staff supporting the conversation. We identified accommodative strategies used by care staff, such as reflecting back the other person's responses to sustain engagement. We also noted care staff behaviours that impeded communication, such as not listening attentively and not allowing sufficient time for responses. The results from this study highlight aspects of social communication within the aged care context and suggest ways in which rewarding interactions between staff and residents with dementia might be encouraged.
Background: People with dementia have a range of needs that are met by informal caregivers. A DVD-based training program was developed using research-based strategies for memory and communication in dementia. The effectiveness of the training on the caregiver experience and the well-being of the person with dementia was evaluated.
Methods: A pre-test/post-test controlled trial was undertaken with caregiver–care-recipient dyads living in the community. Measures of the carers’ knowledge of memory and communication strategies, burden, positive perceptions of caregiving, and perceptions of problem behaviors were taken pre- and three months post-intervention. The depression and well-being of the person with dementia were also evaluated. Satisfaction with the training and feedback were measured.
Results: Twenty-nine dyads (13 training group, 16 control group) participated. Bonferroni's correction was made to adjust for multiple comparisons, setting α at 0.00385. A significant improvement was found in caregivers’ knowledge for the training group compared to the control group (p = 0.0011). The training group caregivers reported a reduction in the frequency of care recipient disruptive behaviors (p = 0.028) and increased perceptions of positive aspects of caregiving (p = 0.039), both at a level approaching significance. The training group care recipients had increased frequency of verbally communicated depressive behaviors at a level approaching significance (p = 0.0126). The frequency of observed depressive behaviors was not significantly different between groups.
Conclusions: This approach to training for caregivers of people with dementia appears promising for its impact on knowledge and the caregiving experience. Further research could monitor the impact of the training on broader measures of depression and well-being, with a larger sample.
Insurance accounting has for many years proved a challenging topic for standard setters, preparers and users, often described as a “black box”. Will recent developments, in particular the July 2010 Insurance Contracts Exposure Draft, herald a new era?
This paper reviews these developments, setting out key issues and implications. It concentrates on issues relevant to life insurers, although much of the content is also relevant to non-life insurers.
The paper compares certain IFRS and Solvency II developments, recognising that UK insurers face challenges in implementing new financial and regulatory reporting requirements in similar timeframes. The paper considers resulting external disclosure requirements and a possible future role for supplementary information.
Secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling analysis have been used to study the segregation of Au at moving Si-SiO2 interfaces during bombardment of Si with 15 keV O- ions. Essentially 100% of the Au is found to segregate at a bombardment temperature of 250°C, whereas only partial segregation occurs for room temperature bombardment. Up to 10 monolayers of Au can be segregated in disordered Si behind an SiO2 layer at 250°C. These results are discussed in terms of ion-assisted migration of Au in disordered Si and extremely low solubilities of Au in SiO2.
This study compares oxide and nitride formation during oxygen and nitrogen bombardment of Si. Ion bombardment is carried out both in a SIMS machine and in a conventional implanter at various temperatures. Stoichiometric SiO2 and slightly N-rich Si3N4 are formed during bombardment even at cryogenic temperatures. Implanted metals were found to have a strong tendency to be segregated at a moving Si-SiO2 interface during oxygen bombardment but little segregation is observed at a Si-Si3N4 interface.
Surface passivation of device-grade radiation detector materials was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with transport property measurements before and after various chemical treatments. Specifically Br-MeOH (2% Br), KOH with NH4F/H2O2 and NH4OH solutions were used to etch, reduce and oxidize the surface of Cd(1-x)ZnxTe semiconductor crystals. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the resultant microscopic surface morphology. Angle-resolved high-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and core lines were used to evaluate the surface chemistry of the chemically treated surfaces. Metal overlayers were then deposited on these chemically treated surfaces and the I-V characteristics measured. The measurements were correlated to understand the effect of interface chemistry on the electronic structure at these interfaces with the goal of optimizing the Schottky barrier height for improved radiation detector devices.