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How do terror and popularity merge under a dictatorship? How did the Gestapo deal with critics of Nazism? Based on hundreds of secret police case files, Enemies of the People explores the day-to-day reality of political policing under Hitler. Examining the Gestapo's policy of 'selective enforcement', J. Ryan Stackhouse challenges the abiding perception of the Gestapo as policing exclusively through terror. Instead, he reveals the complex system of enforcement that defined the relationship between state and society in the Third Reich and helps to explain the Germans' abiding support for Hitler and their complicity in the regime's crimes. Stories of everyday life in Nazi Germany paint the clearest picture yet of just how differently the Gestapo handled certain groups and actions, and the routine investigation, interrogation, and enforcement practices behind this system. Enemies of the People offers penetrating insights into just how reasonable selective enforcement appeared to Germans, and draws unavoidable parallels with the contemporary threat of authoritarianism.
Stem cells give rise to the entirety of cells within an organ. Maintaining stem cell identity and coordinately regulating stem cell divisions is crucial for proper development. In plants, mobile proteins, such as WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) and SHORTROOT (SHR), regulate divisions in the root stem cell niche. However, how these proteins coordinately function to establish systemic behaviour is not well understood. We propose a non-cell autonomous role for WOX5 in the cortex endodermis initial (CEI) and identify a regulator, ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN3)/GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR 1, that coordinates CEI divisions. Here, we show with a multi-scale hybrid model integrating ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and agent-based modeling that quiescent center (QC) and CEI divisions have different dynamics. Specifically, by combining continuous models to describe regulatory networks and agent-based rules, we model systemic behaviour, which led us to predict cell-type-specific expression dynamics of SHR, SCARECROW, WOX5, AN3 and CYCLIND6;1, and experimentally validate CEI cell divisions. Conclusively, our results show an interdependency between CEI and QC divisions.
Parents of infants born with critical congenital heart disease are at risk for adverse mental health symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify infant-, parent-, and environmental-based stressors for mothers and fathers after their infants’ cardiac surgery, and to explore relationships between stressors and mental health symptoms of anxiety and depression.
This study enrolled 28 biological mother-father dyads from families admitted to the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit for cardiac surgery at one free-standing children’s hospital in the Northeast. Paired t-tests were used to examine group differences between mothers and fathers on perceived stressors and mental health symptoms, while linear mixed effects modelling was used to explore the predictive relationship between perceived stressors, personal factors, and mental health symptoms.
Mothers reported higher perceived stressor scores of parental role alteration (t = 4.03, p < 0.01) and infant appearance and behaviour (t = 2.61, p = 0.02), and total perceived stress (t = 2.29 p = 0.03), compared to fathers. Mothers also reported higher anxiety (t = 2.47, p = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.01) than fathers. In multivariable analysis, parental role alteration significantly predicted anxiety (t = 5.20, p < 0.01, d = 0.77) and depressive symptoms (t = 7.09, p < 0.01, d = 1.05) for mothers and fathers. The consensus subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale also significantly predicted depressive symptoms (t = −2.42, p = 0.02, d = 0.04).
Parents were distressed during their infant’s admission for surgical repair for critical congenital heart disease. Parental role alteration was significantly associated with parental anxiety and depressive symptoms, while poor relationship quality was associated with depressive symptoms, highlighting areas for potential nursing-led psychosocial led interventions.
We consider a free-surface thin film placed on a thermally conductive substrate and exposed to an external heat source in a set-up where the heat absorption depends on the local film thickness. Our focus is on modelling film evolution while the film is molten. The evolution of the film modifies local heat flow, which in turn may influence the film surface evolution through thermal variation of the film's material properties. Thermal conductivity of the substrate plays an important role in determining the heat flow and the temperature field in the evolving film and in the substrate itself. In order to reach a tractable formulation, we use asymptotic analysis to develop a novel thermal model that is accurate, computationally efficient, and that accounts for the heat flow in both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. We apply this model to metal films of nanoscale thickness exposed to heating and melting by laser pulses, a set-up commonly used for self and directed assembly of various metal geometries via dewetting while the films are in the liquid phase. We find that thermal effects play an important role, and in particular that the inclusion of temperature dependence in the metal viscosity modifies the time scale of the evolution significantly. On the other hand, in the considered set-up the Marangoni (thermocapillary) effect turns out to be insignificant.
Food security status is a continuum ranging from high to very low food security. While marginal food security falls next to high food security on the spectrum, new quantitative research indicates marginal food security status is associated with negative health outcomes and poor academic performance among college students. Qualitative research focusing on college students experiencing marginal food security has not been conducted. The current study aims to qualitatively explore experiences of college students with marginal food security and to identify themes to better understand and provide context regarding how marginal food security impacts students.
Students were recruited for semi-structured interviews with questions designed to study the challenges associated with students’ food situations. All interviews were recorded and transcribed with themes identified via an inductive approach.
A large public university on the US west coast.
Thirty college students.
Key themes that emerged: purchasing cheap unhealthy foods, insufficient time to prepare and eat meals on a regular basis, stress and anxiety around the inability to eat healthy food and future health issues, self-perception of health when eating poorly along with physical symptoms and low academic motivation by not fully participating in their courses due to few healthy food options or missing meals.
Marginal food security can potentially diminish students’ health and their capacity to learn and succeed in their coursework. The results emphasise that students experiencing marginal food security should not be grouped with students experiencing high food security.
Sleep and circadian timing shifts later during adolescence, conflicting with early school start times, and resulting in circadian misalignment. Although circadian misalignment has been linked to depression, substance use, and altered reward function, a paucity of experimental studies precludes the determination of causality. Here we tested, for the first time, whether experimentally-imposed circadian misalignment alters the neural response to monetary reward and/or response inhibition.
Healthy adolescents (n = 25, ages 13–17) completed two in-lab sleep schedules in counterbalanced order: An ‘aligned’ condition based on typical summer sleep-wake times (0000–0930) and a ‘misaligned’ condition mimicking earlier school year sleep-wake times (2000–0530). Participants completed morning and afternoon functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during each condition, including monetary reward (morning only) and response inhibition (morning and afternoon) tasks. Total sleep time and circadian phase were assessed via actigraphy and salivary melatonin, respectively.
Bilateral ventral striatal (VS) activation during reward outcome was lower during the Misaligned condition after accounting for the prior night's total sleep time. Bilateral VS activation during reward anticipation was lower during the Misaligned condition, including after accounting for covariates, but did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation during response inhibition was lower during the Misaligned condition, before and after accounting for total sleep time and vigilant attention, but only during the morning scan.
Our findings provide novel experimental evidence that circadian misalignment analogous to that resulting from school schedules may have measurable impacts on healthy adolescents' reward processing and inhibition of prepotent responses.
Two mean-field models for polyelectrolytes in simultaneous electric field and pressure-driven flow field were developed and compared. The models predict migration perpendicular to the anti-parallel or parallel fields, where the migration is caused by electrohydrodynamic interactions calculated using either a short- or long-range approximation. Inputs for the mean-field models were determined from Brownian dynamics simulations in a simple shear flow. Both models qualitatively reproduce experimental observations of DNA focusing as reported in previous publications. Specifically, it is observed that combination of the shear and electric fields leads to polyelectrolyte motion in the direction transverse to the flow and electric field direction, which in turn leads to concentration of the polyelectrolyte in the centre of a microfluidic channel. Furthermore, both models predict that there is an optimal strength of electric field that leads to the narrowest distribution profile of the polyelectrolyte in the centre of the channel. The analysis suggests that this is due to dispersion induced by the electrohydrodynamic interactions. However, quantitative disagreement between the model predictions and the experimental data indicates that further progress in the model development is needed.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
Consistent with cumulative risk hypotheses of psychopathology, studies examining prenatal adversity and later mental health largely suggest that pre and postnatal stress exposures have summative effects. Fewer data support that a mismatch in stress levels between pre- and postnatal life increases risk (the mismatch hypothesis). In this retrospective cohort study using data from the 1983 Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), we examined interactions between birth weight status and childhood/adolescent stress to predict major depression in adulthood. Ninety-five participants born at low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and 972 normal birth weight (NBW) control participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form Major Depression module at 21–34 years of age. A youth risk scale consisting of five stressful exposures (family dysfunction, socioeconomic disadvantage, parental criminality, maternal mental illness, exposure to other life stresses) indexed child/adolescent adversity. Birth weight groups did not differ by childhood risk score nor depression levels. A significant interaction was observed between birth weight and the youth risk scale whereby exposure to increasing levels of exposure to childhood/adolescent adversity predicted increased levels of depression in the NBW group, but lower rates in those born at LBW. Consistent with the mismatch hypothesis, data from a large, longitudinally followed cohort suggest that the mental health of adults born LBW may be more resilient to the adverse effects of childhood/adolescent stress. Taken in the context of previous studies of low birth weight infants, these findings suggest that the nature of associations between gestational stress and later mental health may depend on the magnitude of prenatal stress exposure, as well as the degree of resilience and/or plasticity conferred by their early-life environment.
Colleges and universities around the world engaged diverse strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baylor University, a community of ˜22,700 individuals, was one of the institutions which resumed and sustained operations. The key strategy was establishment of multidisciplinary teams to develop mitigation strategies and priority areas for action. This population-based team approach along with implementation of a “Swiss Cheese” risk mitigation model allowed small clusters to be rapidly addressed through testing, surveillance, tracing, isolation, and quarantine. These efforts were supported by health protocols including face coverings, social distancing, and compliance monitoring. As a result, activities were sustained from 1 August to 8 December 2020. There were 62,970 COVID-19 tests conducted with 1,435 people testing positive for a positivity rate of 2.28%. A total of 1,670 COVID-19 cases were identified with 235 self-reports. The mean number of tests per week was 3,500 with approximately 80 of these positive (11 per day). More than 60 student tracers were trained with over 120 personnel available to contact trace, at a ratio of one per 400 university members. The successes and lessons learned provide a framework and pathway for similar institutions to mitigate the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 and sustain operations during a global pandemic.
To evaluate the reliability of balloon coronary compression testing during percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation.
Despite the widespread use of the ‘balloon coronary test’ as the preferable method to rule out the risk of coronary compression, this adverse event has been described after pulmonary valve implantation where coronary balloon test suggested no risk or low risk, calling into question the accuracy of the test.
We performed a retrospective chart review of 84 patients who underwent pulmonary valve implantation between January 2018 and December 2019 and selected 36 patients whose archived imaging was suitable to perform quantitative analysis of the ‘balloon coronary test’. We focused on the spatial disparity between the right ventricular outflow tract position defined by the inflated testing balloon and the eventual implanted valve position, to classify the test as inaccurate or accurate.
In total, 36.1% of cases were classified as having an inaccurate coronary balloon test. Among the baseline characteristics, right ventricular outflow tract substrate was identified as a significant predictor of test accuracy. Related to this characteristic, the type of testing balloon used and the size of the eventually implanted valve were found to be associated with test accuracy.
Based on our findings, balloon coronary testing is not an accurate method of predicting final valve position with respect to fixed structures in the thorax. This may translate to a high false positive rate for the likelihood of coronary compression in pulmonary valve implantation.
Antimicrobial spectrum scoring is a method to quantify the spectrum of antimicrobial utilization. Herein, we applied a locally adapted scoring system, with other pre-existing scoring systems, using a data set of prophylactically administered antibiotics following a 2-stage antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) intervention in a population of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Recent research has revealed that cognitively unimpaired older adults who are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia often exhibit subtle cognitive alterations in their neuropsychological profiles. Emerging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory, which is memory for personal events and knowledge, may be sensitive to early AD-related cognitive alterations. In the present study, we investigated whether the rapid generation of autobiographical memory category exemplars, a retrieval process that taxes the neural network that is vulnerable to early AD, is compromised in cognitively unimpaired middle-aged and older carriers of the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4), which increases risk for AD dementia.
In addition to standard neuropsychological tests, we administered a fluency task that requires generating exemplars for two types of autobiographical memory, namely episodic memories and personal semantics, to a group of cognitively unimpaired middle-aged and older adults (n = 45) enriched with APOE4 carriers (n = 20).
While no APOE4 deficits were found on standard neuropsychological tests, episodic and personal semantic exemplar generation was reduced in the APOE4 group.
Autobiographical memory aberrations associated with a higher risk for AD are evident in fluency and affect both episodic memory and personal semantics.
Despite broad evidence suggesting that adversity-exposed youth experience an impaired ability to recognize emotion in others, the underlying biological mechanisms remains elusive. This study uses a multimethod approach to target the neurological substrates of this phenomenon in a well-phenotyped sample of youth meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-one PTSD-afflicted youth and 23 typically developing (TD) controls completed clinical interview schedules, an emotion recognition task with eye-tracking, and an implicit emotion processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging )fMRI). PTSD was associated with decreased accuracy in identification of angry, disgust, and neutral faces as compared to TD youth. Of note, these impairments occurred despite the normal deployment of visual attention in youth with PTSD relative to TD youth. Correlation with a related fMRI task revealed a group by accuracy interaction for amygdala–hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) for angry expressions, where TD youth showed a positive relationship between anger accuracy and amygdala–hippocampus FC; this relationship was reversed in youth with PTSD. These findings are a novel characterization of impaired threat recognition within a well-phenotyped population of severe pediatric PTSD. Further, the differential amygdala–hippocampus FC identified in youth with PTSD may imply aberrant efficiency of emotional contextualization circuits.