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Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
The mass changes of the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) glaciers are computed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) inter-satellite range-rate data for the period April 2003–September 2007. Through the application of unique processing techniques and a surface mass concentration (mascon) parameterization, the mass variations in the GoA glacier regions have been estimated at high temporal (10 day) and spatial (2 × 2 arc-degrees) resolution. The mascon solutions are directly estimated from a reduction of the GRACE K-band inter-satellite range-rate data and, unlike previous GRACE solutions for the GoA glaciers, do not exhibit contamination by leakage from mass change occurring outside the region of interest. The mascon solutions reveal considerable temporal and spatial variation within the GoA glacier region, with the largest negative mass balances observed in the St Elias Mountains including the Yakutat and Glacier Bay regions. The most rapid losses occurred during the 2004 melt season due to record temperatures in Alaska during that year. The total mass balance of the GoA glacier region was −84 ± 5 Gt a−1 contributing 0.23 ± 0.01 mm a−1 to global sea-level rise from April 2003 through March 2007. Highlighting the large seasonal and interannual variability of the GoA glaciers, the rate determined over the period April 2003–March 2006 is −102 ± 5 Gt a−1, which includes the anomalously high temperatures of 2004 and does not include the large 2007 winter balance-year snowfall. The mascon solutions agree well with regional patterns of glacier mass loss determined from aircraft altimetry and in situ measurements.
Two separate experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Citra, FL to investigate the effects of preplant application timing of 2,4-D and dicamba on sesame stand and yield. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the application timing that caused 10% stand or yield reduction (GR10) compared to the nontreated control (NTC) and expressed as d before planting (DBP; longer intervals indicate more injury). Likewise, regression analysis was used to determine sesame stand that resulted in 10% yield reduction (YR10) expressed as plants m−1 row. Stand measured 3 wk after planting (WAP) revealed 2,4-D applied at 0.53 kg ae ha−1 to be the least injurious treatment to sesame stand (GR10=6.4 DBP). Conversely, dicamba at 1.12 kg ha−1 produced a GR10 of 15.7 DBP for sesame stand at 3 WAP. 2,4-D applied at 0.53 and 1.06 kg ha−1 and dicamba applied at 0.56 kg ha−1 had the lowest GR10 for yield of 2, 3.7, and 3 DBP, respectively. Dicamba applied at 1.12 kg ha−1 proved to be the most injurious treatment to yield, which produced a GR10 value of 10.3 DBP. To simulate possible stand losses associated with dicamba or 2,4-D and the subsequent effect on yield, a separate experiment was conducted in which sesame was thinned to various plant densities and yield was recorded to determine the relationship between plant stand and seed yield. The regression analysis of these data was then compared to that of the experiment treated with 2,4-D and dicamba to separate any physiological effects of the herbicides that would lead to yield reduction from yield effects due to stand loss only. Rate constants were compared and no statistical differences were detected between herbicide and non-herbicide treatments, suggesting that yield reductions that occur from preplant applications of 2,4-D and dicamba were purely due to stand reductions.
The McMurdo Ice Shelf and associated faunal remains were examined in the vicinity of the easternmost Dailey Island. Stratigraphic, petrographic, and chemical composition studies of cores from two holes drilled through the ice shelf show that at these locations the shelf is composed only of fresh-water ice. Although cores from the deeper hole possessed typically glacial textures throughout, much of the ice from this part of the McMurdo Ice Shelf may have been formed from the freezing of a layer of fresh water found sandwiched between shelf bottom and the underlying sea-water. The existence of fresh water under the ice shelf can most probably be attributed to drainage of surface melt water during the ablation season. There was no evidence to indicate that this part of the McMurdo Ice Shelf is being nourished by the growth of sea ice onto its lower surface. The fish remains found on the ice surface were confined to a narrow zone along the tide crack and are believed to have been left in this vicinity by deep diving seals. The marine invertebrate remains on top of the ice are associated with morainal material and are believed to have been incorporated into the ice at the time of formation of the moraines.
Recent measurements of snow accumulation on undulating surfaces around “Byrd station”, Antarctica indicate that the undulations are tending to be filled in. These results are discussed in the light of current knowledge of the origin and migration of such features.
Two experiments were conducted in 2015 at multiple locations in Florida to evaluate the effects of planting depth and application timing on S-metolachlor injury in sesame. In both studies, sesame responded negatively to increases in S-metolachlor rate. Altering sesame planting depth did not provide increased safety to PRE S-metolachlor applications. Sesame establishment declined with increased planting depth, likely because of the physical inability of the small seed to emerge from the 3.8-cm depth. Delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 or 6 d after planting (DAP) consistently improved sesame establishment. Applications 3 and 6 DAP resulted in 89 to 92% seedling emergence at 2 wk after planting (WAP), relative to 55 to 63% emergence when S-metolachlor was applied the day of planting (0 DAP) or 3 days before (−3 DAP), respectively. Applications 3 DAP resulted in 21 and 2% plant stunting when evaluated 3 and 6 WAP, respectively, whereas all other timings caused 25 to 51% stunting. Yield was reduced 22 and 33% by the −3 DAP and 0 DAP application timings, respectively, whereas no reduction in yield was observed by the delayed application timings. Therefore, delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 to 6 days will likely result in improved sesame seedling establishment and total seed yield.
The most extensive chronometric study ever undertaken on Egyptian Dynastic sites was published in Radiocarbon by Bonani et al. (2001). It comprised 269 radiocarbon measurements on monuments ranging from the 1st–12th dynasties. However, many of the calibrated dates obtained were significantly offset from historical estimates. The greatest discrepancies occurred in the 4th Dynasty where, paradoxically, the dating program had been most rigorous. For this period, 158 measurements were made at 12 sites, with the majority of the dates being 200–300 yr older than expected. The 4th Dynasty results were especially significant as they included some of the most important monuments in Egypt. In this paper, the raw data from that study have been reanalyzed using the OxCal calibration program, making particular use of its new outlier detection functionality. This Bayesian approach has resulted in a new series of calibrations that show much closer agreement with conventional chronological records.
A method for collecting an isotopically representative sample of CO2 from an air stream using a zeolite molecular sieve is described. A robust sampling system was designed and developed for use in the field that includes reusable molecular sieve cartridges, a lightweight pump, and a portable infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). The system was tested using international isotopic standards (13C and 14C). Results showed that CO2 could be trapped and recovered for both δ13C and 14C analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively, without any contamination, fractionation, or memory effect. The system was primarily designed for use in carbon isotope studies of ecosystem respiration, with potential for use in other applications that require CO2 collection from air.
As part of a study investigating the carbon balance of a blanket bog, we made an assessment of the spatial variation of radiocarbon concentrations in the surface layers of a small area of peatland in the north of England. The peat depth at which bomb-14C content was the highest varied considerably between cores sampled from across the site. At several sampling locations, 14C levels >100% Modern were confined to the surface 8 cm, whereas bomb 14C was evident at 1 site, located only meters away, to a depth of at least 12–16 cm. Using the layer where 14C levels first exceeded 100% Modern as a chronological reference layer, we estimated the carbon accumulation rate over the last 50 yr for the surface peat at each site (range ∼20 to ∼125 g C m2 yr-1). Our results show that although carbon accumulation over the last 50 yr was similar across the site, variation in the depth to which bomb 14C was evident implied considerable variation in the vertical peat growth rate.
The Theodosian church of St Sophia was destroyed on the first day of the great Nika rebellion of January 532. Its destruction provided Justinian with the pretext, at least, to rebuild it in a more durable and more magnificent form and presented his principal architects, Anthemius of Tralles and the elder Isidorus of Miletus, with an almost unprecedented opportunity. This opportunity they seized to the full. By a daring combination of structural forms never before attempted on such a scale, they created an interior whose superb spatial qualities still excite and amaze. A partial collapse in 558, little more than twenty years after the solemn dedication in December 537, showed that they had even been a little too daring and called for a partial reconstruction. But, after this had been completed by the younger Isidorus in 563, the rebuilt church acquired substantially its present form and remained for some 800 years the largest vaulted man-made structure in the world.
Impairments in key neuropsychological domains (e.g. working memory, attention) and social cognitive deficits have been implicated as intermediate (endo) phenotypes for bipolar disorder (BD), and should therefore be evident in unaffected relatives.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive ability was examined in 99 young people (age range 16–30 years) with a biological parent or sibling diagnosed with the disorder [thus deemed to be at risk (AR) of developing BD], compared with 78 healthy control (HC) subjects, and 52 people with a confirmed diagnosis of BD.
Only verbal intelligence and affective response inhibition were significantly impaired in AR relative to HC participants; the BD participants showed significant deficits in attention tasks compared with HCs. Neither AR nor BD patients showed impairments in general intellectual ability, working memory, visuospatial or language ability, relative to HC participants. Analysis of BD-I and BD-II cases separately revealed deficits in attention and immediate memory in BD-I patients (only), relative to HCs. Only the BD (but not AR) participants showed impaired emotion recognition, relative to HCs.
Selective cognitive deficits in the capacity to inhibit negative affective information, and general verbal ability may be intermediate markers of risk for BD; however, the extent and severity of impairment in this sample was less pronounced than has been reported in previous studies of older family members and BD cases. These findings highlight distinctions in the cognitive profiles of AR and BD participants, and provide limited support for progressive cognitive decline in association with illness development in BD.
A newly designed, 100 mm2, silicon drift detector has been installed on an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with an ultra-high resolution pole piece, without requiring column modifications. With its unique, windowless design, the detector’s active region is in close proximity to the sample, resulting in a dramatic increase in count rate, while demonstrating an increased sensitivity to low energy X-rays and a muted tilt dependence. Numerous examples of X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are presented on relevant materials such as AlxGa1−xN nanowires, perovskite oxides, and polycrystalline CdTe thin films, across both varying length scales and accelerating voltages.