To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Art programmes have been shown to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia. To understand how people with dementia benefit from art programmes it is important to evaluate them. ‘Unforgettable’ is an interactive museum programme for people with dementia and their care-givers in the Netherlands. This study examined how it is experienced and appreciated by its users. It also investigated whether the user experience and appreciation are linked to their specific background characteristics. In a single-group design, we used a ‘take-home’ survey to collect the participants’ background characteristics and their experience and appreciation of the programme. A before and after intervention measurement took place, using a smiley face scale, to measure the change in mood of participants. Participants evaluated the programme very positively. Social interaction proved a key factor in their appreciation. The mood of the persons with dementia (N = 95) and care-givers (N = 104) improved after participation in the ‘Unforgettable’ programme. The results of this evaluation may contribute to the quality of art programmes in museums.
The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945–1957 in 2011–2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938–1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
The objective of the present study is to summarise trends in under- and over-nutrition in pregnant women on the Thailand–Myanmar border. Refugees contributed data from 1986 to 2016 and migrants from 1999 to 2016 for weight at first antenatal consultation. BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) data were available during 2004–2016 when height was routinely measured. Risk factors for low and high BMI were analysed for <18·5 kg/m2 or ≥23 kg/m2, respectively. A total of 48 062 pregnancies over 30 years were available for weight analysis and 14 646 pregnancies over 13 years (2004–2016) had BMI measured in first trimester (<14 weeks’ gestational age). Mean weight at first antenatal consultation in any trimester increased over the 30-year period by 2·0 to 5·2 kg for all women. First trimester BMI has been increasing on average by 0·5 kg/m2 for refugees and 0·6 kg/m2 for migrants, every 5 years. The proportion of women with low BMI in the first trimester decreased from 16·7 to 12·7 % for refugees and 23·1 to 20·2 % for migrants, whereas high BMI increased markedly from 16·9 to 33·2 % for refugees and 12·3 to 28·4 % for migrants. Multivariate analysis demonstrated low BMI as positively associated with being Burman, Muslim, primigravid, having malaria during pregnancy and smoking, and negatively associated with refugee as opposed to migrant status. High BMI was positively associated with being Muslim and literate, and negatively associated with age, primigravida, malaria, anaemia and smoking. Mean GWG was 10·0 (sd 3·4), 9·5 (sd 3·6) and 8·3 (sd 4·3) kg, for low, normal and high WHO BMI categories for Asians, respectively.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection can cause serious illness including haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The role of socio-economic status (SES) in differential clinical presentation and exposure to potential risk factors amongst STEC cases has not previously been reported in England. We conducted an observational study using a dataset of all STEC cases identified in England, 2010–2015. Odds ratios for clinical characteristics of cases and foodborne, waterborne and environmental risk factors were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by SES, adjusting for baseline demographic factors. Incidence was higher in the highest SES group compared to the lowest (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19–2.00). Odds of Accident and Emergency attendance (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10–1.75) and hospitalisation (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.36–2.15) because of illness were higher in the most disadvantaged compared to the least, suggesting potential lower ascertainment of milder cases or delayed care-seeking behaviour in disadvantaged groups. Advantaged individuals were significantly more likely to report salad/fruit/vegetable/herb consumption (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.16–2.17), non-UK or UK travel (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.40–2.27; OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.35–2.56) and environmental exposures (walking in a paddock, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22–2.70; soil contact, OR 1.52, 95% CI 2.13–1.09) suggesting other unmeasured risks, such as person-to-person transmission, could be more important in the most disadvantaged group.
Introduction: Effective communication to develop a shared understanding of patient expectations is critical to a positive encounter in the Emergency Department (ED). However, there is limited research examining Patient/Caregiver (P/C ) expectations in the ED and what factors lead to P/C presentation. This study aims to address this gap by answering the following questions: 1) What are common P/C reported factors affecting ED presentation? 2) What are common P/C expectations of an ED visit? 3) How do P/C expectations vary based on ED site or factors affecting presentation in the ED? Methods: The Preparing Emergency Patients and Providers (PrEPP) tool was designed to collect P/C expectations, worries, perceived causes of symptoms, and factors affecting presentation from a convenience sample of patient visits to the emergency department (ED). The PrEPP tool was provided to all P/Cs with CTAS 2-5 when they registered at one of 4 EDs in the Halifax area from January to June 2016. Completed tools were collected in a REDCap database where qualitative data was coded into categories (i.e. presenting illness, injury). Descriptive and chi-squared statistical analyses were performed. Results: In total, 11,418 PrEPP tools were collected; representing 12% of the total ED visits to the 4 ED sites during the study period. The main factors affecting ED presentation were: self-referral 68%, family/friends 20%, telehealth 8%, unable to see their GP 7%, GP referral 6%, or walk-in-clinic 5%. P/Cs main causes of worry were: presenting illness 19%, injury 15%, or pain 14%. The main expectations for the ED visit were to get a: physician's opinion 73%, x-ray 40%, or blood test 20%. Most P/Cs indicated they did not expect medication during (63%), or after (66%), their ED visit. There were significant differences in P/C expectations between adult and pediatric EDs (χ2 = 720.949, df = 14, P = 0.000) and those P/Cs unable or able to access primary care prior to ED presentation (χ2 = 38.980, df = 1, P = 0.000). The rate of expecting a physician's opinion at the pediatric ED was higher than the adult ED (77.6% vs 70.9%), while lower for expecting CT/MRIs (4.6% vs 11.4%). P/Cs who were unable to access primary care prior to ED presentation expected services which were available at primary care at a higher rate than those who accessed primary care (58.5% vs 36.7%). Conclusion: Our findings identify some of the factors that influence P/C's decision to present to the ED and their expectations of the ED visit.
Introduction: Effective communication to develop a shared understanding of patient/caregiver (P/C) expectations is critical during emergency department (ED) encounters. However, there is limited research examining the use of communication tools of P/C expectations to improve communication in the ED. The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction with a patient expectations questionnaire, known as the PrEPP tool, and its impact on communication and management of patients in the ED. Methods: The PrEPP tool collected P/C expectations over 3 phases of the study. In phase1, the PrEPP tool was distributed to all P/Cs (CTAS score of 2 to 5) in four EDs in Nova Scotia. In phase 2 the PrEPP tool was refined to a 5-item questionnaire. In phase 3 the PrEPP tool was re-implemented over a six-month period. Follow-up surveys were distributed to P/Cs via email (phase 1, 3) and HCPs on iPads in the ED (phase 3) to determine the impact of the tool on communication and management of patients. Entries were compiled on a REDCap database and descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses related to satisfaction.The PrEPP tool collected P/C expectations over 3 phases of the study. In phase1, the PrEPP tool was distributed to all P/Cs (CTAS score of 2 to 5) in four EDs in Nova Scotia. In phase 2 the PrEPP tool was refined to a 5-item questionnaire. In phase 3 the PrEPP tool was re-implemented over a six-month period. Follow-up surveys were distributed to P/Cs via email (phase 1, 3) and HCPs on iPads in the ED (phase 3) to determine the impact of the tool on communication and management of patients. Entries were compiled on a REDCap database and descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses related to satisfaction. Results: In Phase 1, 11418 PrEPP tools and 147 surveys (29% response rate) were collected from January-June 2016. The majority of P/Cs found the PrEPP questionnaire easy to complete (95.9%) and felt HCPs met their expectations (87.1%). In Phase 3, 951 P/C (31.1% response rate) and 128 HCP surveys were collected. Of P/C respondents 45.9% felt PrEPP helped to communicate expectations, while 49.7% said that they would like to use it on future ED visits. The majority of P/C respondents (75.4%) indicated their expectations were met during their visit to the ED. Of those whose expectations were not met, 69% felt their expectations were not discussed. The majority of HCP respondents (90.4%) indicated they used the PrEPP tool at least sometimes. Also, 78.4% said it influenced patient communication and 42% indicated the tool influenced management of patients at least sometimes. Conclusion: Obtaining expectations early in the patient encounter may provide opportunities for improved communication in the ED. P/Cs found the PrEPP tool easy to use to communicate their expectations and HCPs felt it influenced communication and management of patients in the ED. Further qualitative thematic analysis is needed to explore how the PrEPP tool impacted ED visits.
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has been used in solving a wide variety of geologic problems involving mineral, ore, and water analysis. The technique has been a powerful analytical tool in the survey of mineral deposits, as a control to monitor ore flotation processes, for the semimicroanalysis of mineral separates and of rare new mineral species, and for the determination of trace elements in lake and saline waters. Many preparation techniques have been developed for the analysis of complex mineral systems, some combining X-Ray fluorescence with other analytical techniques to provide a complete analysis. These, coupled with improvements in instrumentation, have given the X-ray analyst a means of extending analytical ranges to the microgram level and to include elements that were previously not detectable. Significant advances in sample preparation and methods development have been made in the analysis of milligram quantities of complex geologic materials. The fusion and the solution of specimens appear to be the preferred methods of sample preparation. For samples that vary markedly in composition, the slope-ratio technique offers a new approach to solving matrix problems.
An X-ray fluorescence method is described for the analysis of niobotamalate concentrates, bringing speed and accuracy to determinations that are difficult chemically. Many of the problems inherent in the X-ray fluorescence analysis of powdered samples are eliminated by fusion of the sample in a mixture of Li2B4O7 and La2O3. Absolute amounts can be determined without reliance on chemically analyzed standard concentrates. Standards in a wide range of concentrations are readily prepared from pure chemicals. La2O3 plays a dual role, aiding in the fusion of highly refractory oxides and minimizing absorption differences between samples. In addition to niobium and tantalum, elements commonly present in niobate-tantalate ore concentrates, such as titanium, iron, tin, and manganese, are readily determined.
The fusion mixture consists of 80 mg of sample, 120 mg of La2O3 and 800 mg of Li2B4O7. The fusion is made in graphite crucibles at 1100°C for 15 min. The cooled bead is ground in a mixer-grinder and pressed into a pellet. X-ray fluorescence measurements yield linear calibration curves for each of the elements over a wide range of concentration.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Determine PTL’s mechanism(s) of action in a panel of canine hematopoietic cell lines; this will enable us to 1) verify that PTL is working as expected and 2) rationally select combination therapeutics. Characterize the in vitro sensitivity of canine hematopoietic cell lines to PTL in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Determine immunohistochemical NFκB expression in tissue microarrays of spontaneous canine neoplasms and correlate with outcome-linked data. Characterize the in vivo sensitivity of canine hematopoietic cell lines to PTL using a murine xenograft model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Growth inhibition assays were performed using a panel of canine mast cell, histiocytic sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukemia cell lines, with PTL alone or in combination with redox-perturbing standard-of-care therapeutics. Cell death was assessed using flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting were used to assess NFκB localization and phosphorylation of NFκB p65 (transcriptional activation), respectively. Intracellular glutathione with and without PTL and combination chemotherapeutics will be assessed spectrophotometrically. Archived spontaneous canine tumors will be evaluated immunohistochemically (IHC) for increased NFκB pathway activation relative to normal control tissues. Nude mice will receive intravenous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous injections of canine HS cells and will be treated with PTL or with PTL in combination with standard-of-care chemotherapeutics. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: All immortalized canine cell lines evaluated are sensitive to PTL therapy and undergo dose-dependent apoptosis following exposure to drug. PTL exposure leads to inhibition of NFκB, as evidenced by immunofluorescent nuclear exclusion and decreased p65 phosphorylation. Some chemotherapeutics appear to synergize with PTL in vitro. Anticipated results: We expect to find increased IHC NFκB pathway activation in malignantly transformed tissues relative to controls. We expect standard-of-care therapeutics to synergize with PTL in vivo based on preliminary in vitro data. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These studies will determine whether PTL therapy may be beneficial in dogs with a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms, either alone or in combination with other therapeutics that are currently in clinical use. Dogs with mast cell or histiocytic neoplasia are an excellent model for rare and deadly human diseases, which may also benefit from PTL therapy.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genetic and environment influences and sex on injury involvement using two sets of Finnish twin data. The younger participants were 955 twins born between 1983 and 1987, aged 20 to 24 years. The older participants were 12,428 twins born between 1930 and 1957, aged 33 to 60 years. Within-twin correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested that genetic effects play no role in injury involvement among young twins, but do have some effect at older ages. The results indicated that environmental factors have greater importance in injury involvement than genetic factors in the younger twin data set (FT12), whereas in a middle-aged (33–60 years) twin data set, genetic effects explained about quarter of the variance in injury involvement. Sex was a strong contributing factor, with males being generally more prone to injuries than females.
Background: Most people with common mental health problems do not seek evidence-based psychological interventions. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether monitoring symptoms of depression and anxiety using an app increased treatment-seeking. Method: Three hundred and six people with significant levels of anxiety and depression, none of whom were currently receiving treatment, were randomly allocated to receive either (a) information about local psychological services only, (b) information plus regular symptom monitoring (every 6 days), or (c) information plus open symptom monitoring (monitoring when they felt like it). An app was used to provide information and monitor mood. Results: The proportion of participants who reported receiving treatment after starting the study was 7.2% (10/138) in the information only group, 8.1% (9/111) in the information plus regular monitoring group and 15.8% (9/57) in the information plus open monitoring group. There was a trend for participants who were able to monitor whenever they wished to be more likely to report receiving treatment than people who were only given information about their local treatment services. The impact of the intervention was greatest among participants who intended to seek treatment before taking part. Limitations were that only a small minority of those who downloaded the app completed the study and that the study relied on self-reported measures of treatment-seeking. Conclusions: Symptom monitoring can increase actual treatment-seeking in those with an intention to seek treatment.
Previous research shows that museum programs can be beneficial for the quality of life of people with dementia. This study evaluated the implementation of “Unforgettable,” an interactive museum program for people with dementia and their caregivers in the Netherlands, and investigated the impact of the program's implementation on the museums as an organization and on the attitudes toward dementia of the museum staff.
Semi-structured interviews were held with 23 stakeholders to identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the Unforgettable program in 12 Dutch museums. Based on the model of Meiland et al. (2004), an overview is made of factors influencing the different levels and phases of the implementation process. The impact of Unforgettable on the attitudes of the museum staff was assessed using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (n = 176).
The training in the Unforgettable method, regular evaluation with the program guides and hosts, and cooperation with other organizations appeared essential for successful implementation of Unforgettable. A lack of promotional activities was an impeding factor. Compared to before the implementation, the museum employees’ attitudes toward people with dementia became more positive.
Both successful dissemination of the Unforgettable program and the more positive attitudes toward dementia of employees in museums implementing this program can contribute to the social participation of people with dementia and thereby to their quality of life.
Mandatory fortification of staple grains with folic acid and/or vitamin B12 (B12) is under debate in many countries including Ireland, which has a liberal, but voluntary, fortification policy. Older adults can be at risk of both deficiency and high folate status, although little is known on the actual prevalence and the major predictors. Population prevalence estimates from older adults (n 5290 ≥50 years) from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (Wave 1) are presented here. Measures included plasma total vitamin B12 and folate, whereas predictors included detailed demographic, socio-economic, geographic, seasonal and health/lifestyle data. The prevalence of deficient or low B12 status (<185 pmol/l) was 12 %, whereas the prevalence of deficient/low folate status was 15 %. High folate status (>45 nmol/l) was observed in 8·9 %, whereas high B12 status was observed in 3·1 % (>601 pmol/l). The largest positive predictor of B12 concentration was self-reported B12 injection and/or supplement use (coefficient 51·5 pmol/; 95 % CI 9·4, 93·6; P=0·016) followed by sex and geographic location. The largest negative predictor was metformin use (−33·6; 95 % CI −51·9, −15·4; P<0·0001). The largest positive predictor of folate concentration was folic acid supplement use (6·0; 95 % CI 3·0, 9·0 nmol/l; P<0·001) followed by being female and statin medications. The largest negative predictor was geographic location (−5·7; 95 % CI −6·7, −4·6; P<0·0001) followed by seasonality and smoking. B-vitamin status in older adults is affected by health and lifestyle, medication, sampling period and geographic location. We observed a high prevalence of low B12 and folate status, indicating that the current policy of voluntary fortification is ineffective for older adults.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI) of dementia are important determinants of caregiver burden, while caregiver coping styles and competences can relieve burden. Caregivers differ in coping with the demands made on them and in experienced burden. What changes in caregivers explain recovery from burden, and which caregiver characteristics predict recovery from burden over time, and does treatment make a difference?
This study into recovery from burden was a secondary analysis of data collected in a formerly conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the integrated reactivation and rehabilitation (IRR) programme in a psychiatric-skilled nursing home, compared to usual care (UC; i.e. day care, assisted living arrangements, and nursing home wards). For this secondary analysis, longitudinal data on persons with dementia and caregivers were used from baseline (T1), end of treatment (T2), and at nine months (T3).
Caregivers with an improved sense of competence (SCS) who care for persons with dementia with a decreased severity of NPI have the highest chance of recovering from burden (CSI). Caregivers with a tendency to feel involved with others and sympathize with others (affiliation, ICL-R) have a slightly lower probability of improvement with respect to their sense of competence in the short term. The number of improved caregivers was higher in IRR than UC.
Recovery depends on both an improved sense of competence and a decreased severity of NPI. Combined interventions that address both NPI and focus on enhancing caregiver's sense of competence have added value when it comes to decreasing caregiver burden.