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Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity. We explore opportunities for prevention using asset based-approaches to nutritional health and well-being, with a particular focus on adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds living in London. We focus on the important role that community engagement and multi-sectoral partnership play in improving the nutritional outcomes of London's children. London's children and adolescents grow up in the rich cultural mix of a global city where local streets are characterised by diversity in ethnicities, languages, religions, foods, and customs, creating complex and fluid identities. Growing up with such everyday diversity we argue can enhance the quality of life for London's children and strengthen their social capital. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study of about 6500 of London's young people demonstrated the positive impact of cultural diversity. Born to parents from over a hundred countries and exposed to multi-lingual households and religious practices, they demonstrated strong psychological resilience and sense of pride from cultural straddling, despite material disadvantage and discrimination. Supporting the potential contribution of such socio-cultural assets is in keeping with the values of social justice and equitable and sustainable development. Our work signals the importance of community engagement and multisectoral partnerships, involving, for example, schools and faith-based organisations, to improve the nutrition of London's children.
The Virtual Personalities Model is a motive-based neural network model that provides both a psychological model and a computational implementation that explicates the dynamics and often large within-person variability in behavior that arises over time. At the same time the same model can produce—across many virtual personalities—between-subject variability in behavior that when factor analyzed yields familiar personality structure (e.g., the Big Five). First, we describe our personality model and its implementation as a neural network model. Second, we focus on detailing the neurobiological underpinnings of this model. Third, we examine the learning mechanisms, and their biological substrates, as ways that the model gets “wired up,” discussing Pavlovian and Instrumental conditioning, Pavlovian to Instrumental transfer, and habits. Finally, we describe the dynamics of how initial differences in propensities (e.g., dopamine functioning), wiring differences due to experience, and other factors could operate together to develop and change personality over time, and how this might be empirically examined. Thus, our goal is to contribute to the rising chorus of voices seeking a more precise neurobiologically based science of the complex dynamics underlying personality.
We report daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from bloodstream infections over a 4-year period. The daptomycin MIC increased over time hospital-wide for initial isolates and increased over time within patients, culminating in 40% of patients having daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates in the final year of the study.
Sudden onset disasters (SODs) have affected over 1.5 billion of the world’s population in the past decade. During the same time, developing nations have faced a sustained increase in the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) with extra pressure placed on health systems. The combined increase in SODs and the NCD epidemic facing the world’s most disaster-prone nations will present new challenges to emergency medical teams (EMTs) during disaster response. This report details the experience as an EMT during the Typhoon Haiyan disaster of 2013, with particular reference to the challenges of diabetic management in a surgical field hospital. The incidence of diabetes in this surgical cohort exceeded that of the population by a factor of four. The steps to prepare for and treat diabetes in the field provide a useful model for the management of NCD in the deployed field hospital environment after a disaster.
McDermottKM, HardstaffRM, AlpenS, ReadDJ, CoatsworthNR. Management of Diabetic Surgical Patients in a Deployed Field Hospital: A Model for Acute Non-Communicable Disease Care in Disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):657–661.
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia affecting 1-2% of the population. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) reduces stroke risk by 60-80% in AF patients, but only 50% of indicated patients receive OAC. Many patients present to the ED with AF due to arrhythmia symptoms, however; lack of OAC prescription in the ED has been identified as a significant gap in the care of AF patients. Methods: This was a multi-center, pragmatic, three-phase before-after study, in three Canadian sites. Patients who presented to the ED with electrocardiographically (ECG) documented, nonvalvular AF and were discharged home were included. Phase 1 was a retrospective chart review to determine OAC prescription of AF patients in each ED; Phase 2 was a low-intensity knowledge translation intervention where a simple OAC-prescription tool for ED physicians with subsequent short-term OAC prescription was used, as well as an AF patient education package and a letter to family physicians; phase 3 incorporated Phase 2 interventions, but added immediate follow-up in a community AF clinic. The primary outcome of the study was the rate of new OAC prescriptions at ED discharge in AF patients who were OAC eligible and were not on OAC at presentation. Results: A total of 632 patients were included from June, 2015-November, 2016. ED census ranged from 30000-68000 annual visits. Mean age was 71±15, 67±12, 67±13 years, respectively. 47.5% were women, most responsible ED diagnosis was AF in 75.8%. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2.6±1.8, with no difference amongst groups. There were 266 patients eligible for OAC and were not on this at presentation. In this group, the prescription of new OAC was 15.8% in Phase 1 as compared to 54% and 47%, in Phases 2 and 3, respectively. After adjustment for center, components of the CHA2DS2-VASc score, prior risk of bleeding and most responsible ED diagnosis, the odds ratio for new OAC prescription was 8.0 (95%CI (3.5,18.3) p<0.001) for Phase 3 vs 1, and 10.0 (95%CI (4.4,22.9) p<0.001), for Phase 2 vs 1). No difference in OAC prescription was seen between Phases 2 and 3. Conclusion: Use of a simple OAC-prescription tool was associated with an increase in new OAC prescription in the ED for eligible patients with AF. Further testing in a rigorous study design to assess the effect of this practice on stroke prevention in the AF patients who present to the ED is indicated.
A 10-year descriptive analysis of morbidity and mortality associated with water-related activities in the Top End, Northern Territory (NT), Australia.
An outdoor, water-orientated lifestyle characterises the Top End due to its tropical climate, lengthy coastline, many inland-waterways, and common domestic-pool ownership. However, the water holds many dangers: from drowning to the prospect of crocodile attacks.
Data were retrospectively collected from two sources: the Trauma Registry (TR), Royal Darwin Hospital, NT and the National Coronial Information System. Inclusion criteria: all mortality or injury with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥9 from water-related activity in the Top End. Exclusion criteria: envenomation. Data included: demographics, geographical location, time/mechanism of injury, injury narrative/outcome, alcohol consumption, ISS, and Indigenous race.
Ninety-five deaths occurred from 1/1/2005–12/31/2014; 87 prehospital (92%). The leading three mechanisms of injury for the 138 TR admissions were drowning (40%), falling/diving (35%), and watercraft events (14%). Median age 27 (0-90); 78% males. There were 74 children (<16 years) including 20 deaths. Indigenous Australians represent 30% of the NT population, but had 43% of deaths and 12% of admissions. Deaths from crocodile attacks are increasing with 14 deaths from 2005-2014, compared to 10 deaths from 1971-2004 (Caldicutt). Alcohol was recorded in 31% of admissions and 52% of deaths in those age >16. The Top End’s crude rate of drowning averaged over 10 years was 4.36/100,000/annum, compared to 1.31/100,000/annum in Australia.
Alcohol plays a major role in the Top End’s water-related harm, associated with all mechanisms and over one-half of adult deaths. Also striking is increasing crocodile fatalities, possibly caused by population recovery from endangered to plentiful, since hunting ceased in 1971. Local authorities/advocates push water-safety and crocodile-awareness programs. However, the lure of tropical waters combined with alcohol remains a risk to life and limb. Further public health campaigns focusing on these issues are called for.
There is increasing recognition that perinatal anxiety disorders are both common and potentially serious for mother and child. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) can be triggered or exacerbated in the postpartum period, with mothers reporting significant effects on parenting tasks. However, there is little evidence concerning their effective treatment or the impact of successful treatment on parenting.
A total of 34 mothers with OCD and a baby of 6 months old were randomized into either time-intensive cognitive–behaviour therapy (iCBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). iCBT took place after randomization at 6 months postpartum and was completed by 9 months. Maternal symptomatology, sensitivity in mother–infant interactions and parenting were assessed at baseline and reassessed at 12 months postpartum. At 12 months attachment was also assessed using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Procedure. A healthy control group of mothers and infants (n = 37) underwent the same assessments as a benchmark.
iCBT was successful in ameliorating maternal symptoms of OCD (controlled effect size = 1.31–1.90). However, mother–infant interactions were unchanged by treatment and remained less sensitive in both OCD groups than a healthy control group. The distribution of attachment categories was similar across both clinical groups and healthy controls with approximately 72% classified as secure in each group.
iCBT is an effective intervention for postpartum OCD. Sensitive parenting interactions are affected by the presence of postpartum OCD and this is not improved by successful treatment of OCD symptoms. However, the overall attachment bond appears to be unaffected. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore the impact of postpartum OCD as the child develops.
Rectangular specimens of ice (c. 5 cm × 2 cm × 0.5 cm) were cut from large single crystals (c, 10 cm × 5 cm2) grown from pure water by a modified Bridgman technique. When these specimens were deformed under controlled conditions, slip lines which were predominantly parallel to the basal plane became visible. In some cases short. perpendicular segments were also seen which can be interpreted as evidence for cross-slip in ice. Measurements of slip-band spacings were made on silvered “formvar” replicas of some deformed crystals. These measurements showed that “coarse” slip occurred when the resolved shear stress on the basal plane. σ, was greater than about 0.2 bars, and that the average thickness of the slip lamellae, d (cm) was approximately given by Wakahama’s relationship. (σ−0.2) d = 0.45 × 10−3. At lower stresses “fine” slip occurred, and the relationship between the average thickness of the lamellae and the resolved shear stress was more adequately described by Taylor’s formula, σd = 7.2 × 10−5. It is. however, possible that both coarse and fine slip occurred at higher stresses, but that the fine slip was then below the limit of resolution.
When rectangular single crystals of ice were subjected to uniaxial compression parallel to their Long axes and viewed between crossed polarizers, interference fringes were often observed. Some of these interference bands were associated with grain boundaries formed as a result of “kinking”. These can be explained in terms of the known anisotropic optical properties of ice and the change in the orientation of the optic axis across the boundary. This case has been analysed in detail with the aid of Jones’ calculus and good quantitative agreement exists between the theory and the experimental observations.
Other interference bands were observed parallel to the trace of the basal plane on the surface of some deformed crystals. Alternative hypotheses for the explanation of this phenomenon have been considered and it seems probable that these bands are a result of slight random misorientations between adjacent slip lamellae. Applying Jones’ calculus to a simple model of such a deformed crystal indicates that the required misorientations are of the order of 1º If this explanation is correct, it implies that dislocations with non-basal Burgers vectors (probably c) make an active contribution to the deformation.
Direct detection of 14C using the Harwell 6MV Tandem accelerator has been achieved using a gaseous ion source. The implications of our results for the use of such sources in this role and for the machine, in general, are discussed.
The present study is the first record of twinning in Lagenorhynchus acutus and indeed any Lagenorhynchus sp. Both foetuses were male and located in the left uterine horn, had distinct grossly normal placentas and amniotic sacs, and were therefore likely dizygotic twins. The twins were an incidental finding in an animal that died of a systemic Brucella ceti infection.
Radial diffusion experiments have been carried out to assess the migration of 36Cl, as chloride, through a cementitious backfill material. Further experiments in the presence of cellulose degradation products were performed to assess the effect of organic ligands on the extent and rate of chloride diffusion. Results show that breakthrough of 36Cl is dependent on chloride concentration: as the carrier concentration increases, both breakthrough time and the quantity retained by the cement matrix decreases. Experiments in the presence of cellulose degradation products also show a decrease in time to initial breakthrough. However, uptake at various carrier concentrations in the presence of organic ligands converges at 45% of the initial concentration as equilibrium is reached. The results are consistent with organic ligands blocking sites on the cement that would otherwise be available for chloride binding, though further work is required to confirm that this is the case. Post-experimental digital autoradiographs of the cement cylinders, and elemental mapping showed evidence of increased 36Cl activity associated with black ash-like particles in the matrix, believed to correspond to partially hydrated glassy calcium-silicate-sulfate-rich clinker.
This study examines relationships between childhood adversity and the presence of characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. It was hypothesised that total adversity exposures would be significantly higher in individuals exhibiting these symptoms relative to patients without. Recent proposals that differential associations exist between specific psychotic symptoms and specific adversities was also tested, namely: sexual abuse and hallucinations, physical abuse and delusions, and fostering/adoption and delusions.
Data were collected through auditing 251 randomly selected medical records, drawn from adult patients in New Zealand community mental health centres. Information was extracted on presence and subtype of psychotic symptoms and exposure to ten types of childhood adversity, including five types of abuse and neglect.
Adversity exposure was significantly higher in patients experiencing hallucinations in general, voice hearing, command hallucinations, visions, delusions in general, paranoid delusions and negative symptoms than in patients without these symptoms. There was no difference in adversity exposure in patients with and without tactile/olfactory hallucinations, grandiose delusions or thought disorder. Indication of a dose–response relationship was detected, in that total number of adversities significantly predicted total number of psychotic symptoms. Although fostering/adoption was associated with paranoid delusions, the hypothesised specificity between sexual abuse and hallucinations, and physical abuse and delusions, was not found. The two adversities showing the largest number of associations with psychotic symptoms were poverty and being fostered/adopted.
The current data are consistent with a model of global and cumulative adversity, in which multiple exposures may intensify psychosis risk beyond the impact of single events. Implications for clinical intervention are discussed.
The non-axisymmetric structure of an unstable Stewartson shear layer generated via a differential rotation between flush disks and a cylindrical enclosure is investigated numerically using both three-dimensional direct numerical simulation and a quasi-two-dimensional model. Previous literature has only considered the depth-independent quasi-two-dimensional model due to its low computational cost. The three-dimensional model implemented here highlights the supercritical instability responsible for the polygonal deformation of the shear layer in the linear and nonlinear growth regimes and reveals that linear stability analysis is capable of accurately determining the preferred azimuthal wavenumber for flow conditions near the onset of instability. This agreement is lost for sufficiently forced flows where nonlinear effects encourage the coalescence of vortices towards lower-wavenumber structures. Time-dependent flows are found for large Reynolds numbers defined based on the Stewartson layer thickness and azimuthal velocity differential. However, this temporal behaviour is not solely characterized by Reynolds number but is rather a function of both the Rossby and Ekman numbers. At high Ekman and Rossby numbers, unsteady flow emerges through a small-scale azimuthal destabilization of the axial jets within the Stewartson layers; at low Ekman numbers, unsteady flow emerges through a modulation in the strength of one of the axial vortices rolled up by non-axisymmetric instability of the Stewartson layer.
The rapid rise in syphilis cases has prompted a number of public health campaigns to assist men who have sex with men (MSM) recognize and present early with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of the duration of self-report symptoms and titre of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in MSM with infectious syphilis. Seven hundred and sixty-one syphilis cases in MSM diagnosed at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) from 2007–2013 were reviewed. Median duration of symptoms and RPR titres in each year were calculated. The median durations of symptoms with primary and secondary syphilis were 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 6–14] days and 14 (IQR 7–30) days, respectively. The overall median titre of RPR in secondary syphilis (median 128, IQR 64–256) was higher than in primary syphilis (median 4, IQR 1–32) and in early latent syphilis (median 32, IQR 4–64). The median duration of symptoms for primary syphilis, secondary syphilis and titre of RPR level did not change over time. Public health campaigns were not associated with a significant shorter time from onset of symptoms to treatment. Alternative strategies such as more frequent testing of MSM should be promoted to control the syphilis epidemic in Australia.
Bungowannah virus was discovered following an outbreak of stillbirths and sudden death in young pigs. Affected animals consistently showed a myocardopathy with signs of cardiac failure. After virus isolation and PCR investigations were unsuccessful, direct fetal inoculation was undertaken. Nucleic acid purified from serum from infected fetuses was subjected to sequence-independent single-primer amplification and nucleic acid sequencing. Sequences consistent with a pestivirus were obtained. The entire genome was identified but was genetically remote from the recognized pestivirus species. This virus was not recognized by pan-pestivirus reactive monoclonal antibodies but was subsequently detected in cell cultures by immunoperoxidase staining using convalescent sow serum. Experimental infections of sows at different stages of gestation reproduced the myocarditis syndrome. Pre-weaning losses of 70 and 29% were observed following infection at days 35 and 90, respectively. Piglets infected at day 35 were shown to be persistently infected, while chronic infections were observed after fetal infection at day 55. Chronically infected piglets showed growth retardation and were viremic for up to 7 months. Myocarditis was associated with infection in late gestation (day 90). Non-pregnant sheep and cattle have been experimentally infected but with no evidence of disease. Infection of pregnant cattle in early gestation resulted in both maternal and fetal infection, but all infected fetuses mounted an antibody response to the virus. Analysis of the nucleic acid sequence confirmed that Bungowannah has a number of changes not observed in other pestiviruses. Genes encoding some of the structural proteins remain fully functional when inserted into a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) backbone. Cell culture-based studies have shown that Bungowannah virus will grow in cells extending from humans to bats as well as farm animals.