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To assess the coverage of the adolescent weekly iron and folic acid supplementation (WIFS) programme in rural West Bengal, India.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of intended WIFS programme beneficiaries (in-school adolescent girls and boys and out-of-school adolescent girls).
Birbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System.
A total of 4448 adolescents 10–19 years of age participated in the study.
The percentage of adolescents who reported taking four WIFS tablets during the last month as intended by the national programme was 9·4 % among in-school girls, 7·1 % for in-school boys and 2·3 % for out-of-school girls. The low effective coverage was due to the combination of large deficits in WIFS provision and poor adherence. A large proportion of adolescents reported they were not provided any WIFS tablets in the last month: 61·7 % of in-school girls, 73·3 % of in-school boys and 97·1 % of out-of-school girls. In terms of adherence, only 41·6 % of in-school girls, 38·1 % of in-school boys and 47·4 % of out-of-school girls reported that they consumed all WIFS tablets they received. Counselling from teachers, administrators and school staff was the primary reason adolescents reported taking WIFS tablets, whereas the major reasons for non-adherence were lack of perceived benefit, peer suggestion not to take WIFS and a reported history of side effects.
The effective coverage of the WIFS programme for in-school adolescents and out-of-school adolescent girls is low in rural Birbhum. Integrated supply- and demand-side strategies appear to be necessary to increase the effective coverage and potential benefits of the WIFS programme.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Vaginal ring delivery of antiretroviral drugs may provide protection against acquisition of HIV-1 when used as pre-exposure prophylaxis. As part of a randomized placebo-controlled safety trial of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) intravaginal ring (IVR), we assessed product acceptability through surveys of 17 women after continuous ring use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Sexually active, HIV negative women between the ages of 18 and 45 were enrolled to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetics of three months of continuous TDF IVR use. The study was designed to include 40 US participants randomly assigned (3:1) to a TDF or placebo IVR. Twelve were randomized to TDF and five were assigned to the placebo group before the study was electively discontinued due to development of vaginal ulcerations in eight women in the TDF group. Acceptability data regarding TDF and placebo ring use was gathered via self-administered, computer-based questionnaires at the one- and three-month study visits. Participants were asked about overall attitudes and feelings regarding the TDF and placebo IVR, vaginal changes associated with ring use, and their experiences with ring use during menses and with sex. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30 years (range 18 - 42). Sixteen of 17 (94%) participants completed all study questions at both visits. When asked about ring likeability at one-month, 12 of 16 (75%) women reported overall liking the ring, including 5 of 8 (63%) who developed ulcerations. Vaginal changes described during ring use included 8 participants who indicated that the “vagina was wetter” and 2 who reported that the “vagina was drier.” Additionally, 10 of 12 (83%) who had their period during the first month of the study were not bothered by ring use during menses, and 11 of 16 (69%) stated that the ring was not bothersome with use during sex. When asked at the three-month visit, most reported that they would prefer to wear the ring rather than use a condom during sex, however, condom use was low at baseline in this population. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite unanticipated ulcers, the IVRs were acceptable, especially when used with menses and during sex. Regardless of the group assigned or vaginal changes experienced, and even amongst those who developed ulcerations, the women had positive attitudes towards the ring, which is promising for future use of vaginal rings as a method for HIV prevention.
Men sexually interested in children of a specific combination of maturity and sex tend to show some lesser interest in other categories of persons. Patterns of men's sexual interest across erotic targets' categories of maturity and sex have both clinical and basic scientific implications.
We examined the structure of men's sexual interest in adult, pubescent, and prepubescent males and females using multidimensional scaling (MDS) across four datasets, using three large samples and three indicators of sexual interest: phallometric response to erotic stimuli, sexual offense history, and self-reported sexual attraction. The samples were highly enriched for men sexually interested in children and men accused of sexual offenses.
Results supported a two-dimensional MDS solution, with one dimension representing erotic targets' biological sex and the other dimension representing their sexual maturity. The dimension of sexual maturity placed adults and prepubescent children on opposite ends, and pubescent children intermediate. Differences between men's sexual interest in adults and prepubescent children of the same sex were similar in magnitude to the differences between their sexual interest in adult men and women. Sexual interest in adult men was no more associated with sexual interest in boys than sexual interest in adult women was associated with sexual interest in girls.
Erotic targets' sexual maturity and biological sex play important roles in men's preferences, which are predictive of sexual offending. The magnitude of men's preferences for prepubescent children v. adults of their preferred sex is large.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) utilization during pregnancy may be common, but data specific to universal healthcare systems like Canada are lacking, where pregnancy care is supposed to be standardized. The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize ED utilization among all Ontarian women who had a recognized pregnancy, including by trimester and within 42 days after pregnancy, and further stratified by pregnancy outcome. Methods: Utilizing provincial administrative health databases, this retrospective population-based cohort study included all recognized pregnancies in Ontario conceived between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2017. Peri-pregnancy ED utilization was defined as any ED visit from 0-42 weeks’ gestation, or within 42 days after the end of pregnancy. Modified Poisson regression was used to generate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcome of any peri-pregnancy ED utilization in association with maternal characteristics. Results: Peri-pregnancy ED utilization occurred among 1,075,991 of 2,728,236 recognized pregnancies (39.4%), including among 35.8% of livebirths, 47.3% of stillbirths, 73.7% of miscarriages, and 84.8% of threatened abortions. There were 22,802 (0.84%) ectopic pregnancies among all pregnancies in the cohort. ED utilization peaked in the first trimester and in the first week postpartum. A dose-response effect was seen in the number of peri-pregnancy ED visits in relation to certain maternal characteristics. Women residing in rural areas had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.44 (95% CI 3.39 to 3.49) for ≥ 3 ED visits, compared to those in urban areas. Women with 3-5 (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.97-2.01), 5-6 (OR 3.55, 95% CI 3.49 to 3.61), or ≥ 7 (OR 7.59, 95% CI 7.39 to 7.78) pre-pregnancy comorbidities were more likely to have ≥ 3 peri-pregnancy ED visits than those with 0-2 comorbidities. Of all recognized pregnancies in the cohort, only 106,989 (3.9%) had an injury-related ED visit. Conclusion: Peri-pregnancy ED utilization occurs in nearly 40% of pregnancies, notably in the first trimester and immediately postpartum. Efforts are needed to streamline rapid access to ambulatory obstetrical care during these peak periods, when women are vulnerable to either a miscarriage, or a complication after a livebirth.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
The purpose of this chapter is to consider the manner in which evolutionary perspectives offer an additional level of understanding to the field of psychopathology. This perspective offers both long-term and short-term considerations of psychological difficulties in everyday life. For all organisms, one of the main themes of evolution is the manner in which organisms are in close connection with their environment. It is this close connection that allows for change – including the turning on and off of genetic processes – to take place. In psychopathological disorders, this close connection with both the external and internal environment of the person may be dysfunctional.
When a person loses contact with the current environment and applies strategies that worked perhaps in an earlier time, then unsuccessful adaptation is the result. This lack of connectedness to our environment may take place on both external and internal levels.
To investigate how intakes of whole grains and cereal fibre were associated to risk factors for CVD in UK adults.
Cross-sectional analyses examined associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes and adiposity measurements, serum lipid concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, homocysteine and a combined CVD relative risk score.
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme 2008–2014.
A nationally representative sample of 2689 adults.
Participants in the highest quartile (Q4) of whole grain intake had lower waist–hip ratio (Q1 0·872; Q4 0·857; P = 0·04), HbA1c (Q1 5·66 %; Q4 5·47 %; P = 0·01) and homocysteine (Q1 9·95 µmol/l; Q4 8·76 µmol/l; P = 0·01) compared with participants in the lowest quartile (Q1), after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with C-reactive protein using multivariate analysis (P = 0·02), but this was not significant after final adjustment for cereal fibre. Cereal fibre intake was also inversely associated with waist–hip ratio (P = 0·03) and homocysteine (P = 0·002) in multivariate analysis.
Similar inverse associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes to CVD risk factors suggest the relevance of cereal fibre in the protective effects of whole grains. However, whole grain associations often remained significant after adjusting for cereal fibre intake, suggesting additional constituents may be relevant. Intervention studies are needed to compare cereal fibre intake from non-whole grain sources to whole grain intake.
To compare soft-tissue complications following implantation of different bone conduction hearing devices.
Adults who underwent implantation of different bone conduction hearing devices, between January 2008 and December 2016, were included in the study. Five groups were identified depending on the soft-tissue approach: (1) split-thickness skin flap with use of dermatome; (2) Sheffield ‘S’-shaped incision with skin thinning; (3) linear incision without skin thinning (hydroxyapatite-coated abutment); (4) ‘C’-shaped full-thickness incision for passive transcutaneous bone conduction hearing devices; and (5) post-aural incision for active transcutaneous bone conduction hearing devices. The main outcome measures were different soft-tissue complications.
The study comprised 120 patients (group 1 = 20 patients, group 2 = 35, group 3 = 35, group 4 = 20, and group 5 = 10). Soft tissue related problems were encountered in 55 per cent of patients from group 1, 26 per cent in group 2, 3 per cent in group 3, and 0 per cent in groups 4 and 5.
There was a reduction in soft tissue related complications with reduced soft-tissue handling. In addition, there was a shift from an initial skin-penetrating (percutaneous) approach to a non-skin-penetrating (transcutaneous) approach.