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The main aims of this study were, first to analyze the partial effects of specific mechanisms of moral disengagement (MMD) on different manifestations of general aggression and dating violence (DV) in adolescents and youths; second, to explore the moderating effects of gender and age on these relations. Moral disengagement, and different forms of aggression and DV, were evaluated in a sample of 424 participants (61.1% women) aged 15 to 25 years (M = 18.80; SD = 2.69). Pearson correlations and different hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. All regressions were controlled by social desirability. MMD contributed to physical aggression with a medium effect size (R2 = .22) and verbal aggression with a small effect size (R2 = .10). Conversely, MMD did not appear to clearly contribute to DV. In conclusion, depersonalization and rationalization were the most important MMD for physical aggression, rationalization for verbal aggression, and irresponsibility for verbal-emotional violence in dating relationships. Moreover, the relationships between physical aggression and rationalization mechanism were significantly moderated by gender: there appears to be a stronger relationship between rationalization and physical aggression in boys than in girls. Moderating effects of age on these relations were not found.
Although mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the main reasons for consulting a general practitioner (GP), there is still no international consensus on the most appropriate therapeutic approach.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of watchful waiting (WW) compared with the use of antidepressants (ADs) for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive symptoms in 263 primary care (PC) usual-practice patients in a 12-month pragmatic non-randomised controlled trial. Both longitudinal and per-protocol analyses were performed, through a multilevel longitudinal analysis and a sensitivity analysis.
We observed a statistically significant time x treatment interaction in the severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS) in favour of the AD group at 6 months but not at 12 months. The effect size of this difference was small. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in severity of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI) or health-related quality-of-life (EuroQol-5D, EQ-5D). Sensitivity analysis and per-protocol analysis showed no differences between the two groups in any of the evaluated scales.
Superiority of either treatment (WW and AD) was not demonstrated in patients treated for depression in PC after one year of follow-up.
We study space-like hypersurfaces with functionally bounded mean curvature in Lorentzian warped products , where F is a (non-compact) complete Riemannian manifold whose universal covering is parabolic. In particular, we provide several rigidity results under appropriate mathematical and physical assumptions. As an application, several Calabi–Bernstein-type results are obtained which widely extend the previous ones in this setting.
Several ortho-naphthoquinones (o-NQs) have trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Previously, we demonstrated that the aldo-keto reductase from this parasite (TcAKR) reduces o-NQs, such as β-lapachone (β-Lap) and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), with concomitant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recent characterization of TcAKR activity and expression in two T. cruzi strains, CL Brener and Nicaragua, showed that TcAKR expression is 2.2-fold higher in CL Brener than in Nicaragua. Here, we studied the trypanocidal effect and induction of several death phenotypes by β-Lap and 9,10-PQ in epimastigotes of these two strains. The CL Brener strain was more resistant to both o-NQs than Nicaragua, indicating that greater TcAKR activity is unlikely to be a major influence on o-NQ toxicity. Evaluation of changes in ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine exposure and monodansylcadaverine labelling evidenced that β-Lap and 9,10-PQ induce different death phenotypes depending on the combination of drug and T. cruzi strain analysed. To study whether TcAKR participates in o-NQ activation in intact parasites, β-Lap and 9,10-PQ trypanocidal effect was next evaluated in TcAKR-overexpressing parasites. Only β-Lap was more effective and induced greater ROS production in TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes than in controls, suggesting that TcAKR may participate in β-Lap activation.
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal’s emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities. Half of the animals, slaughtered in the same batch, were used for a complete study of biomarkers of stress, including brain neurotransmitters and some muscle biomarkers of oxidative stress. After slaughter, specific brain areas were excised and the levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA)) and indoleamines (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin (5HT)) were analyzed. In addition, muscle proteasome activity (20S), antioxidant defence (total antioxidant activity (TAA)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and autophagy biomarkers (Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) and LC3-II) were monitored during early postmortem maturation (0 to 24 h). Compared with PB animals, NB pigs were more susceptible to stress, showing higher 5HT levels (P<0.01) in the hippocampus and lower DA (P<0.001) in the pre-frontal cortex. Furthermore, NB pigs had more intense proteolytic processes and triggered primary muscle cell survival mechanisms immediately after slaughter (0 h postmortem), thus showing higher TAA (P<0.001) and earlier proteasome activity (P<0.001) and autophagy (Beclin-1, P<0.05; LC3-II/LC3-I, P<0.001) than PB pigs, in order to counteract the induced increase in oxidative stress, that was significantly higher in the muscle of NB pigs at 0 h postmortem (LPO, P<0.001). Our study is the first to demonstrate that pig’s cognitive bias influences the animal’s susceptibility to stress and has important effects on the postmortem muscle metabolism, particularly on the cell antioxidant defences and the autophagy onset. These results expand the current knowledge regarding biomarkers of animal welfare and highlight the potential use of biomarkers of the proteasome, the autophagy (Beclin-1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and the muscle antioxidant defence (TAA, LPO) for detection of peri-slaughter stress.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
Recent studies of WNh stars at the cores of young massive clusters have challenged the previously accepted upper stellar mass limit (~150 M⊙), suggesting some of these objects may have initial masses as high as 300 M⊙. We investigated the possible existence of observed stars above ~150 M⊙ by i) examining the nature and stellar properties of VFTS 682, a recently identified WNh5 very massive star, and ii) studying the uncertainties in the luminosity estimates of R136’s core stars due to crowding. Our spectroscopic analysis reveals that the most massive members of R136 and VFTS 682 are very similar and our K-band photometric study of R136’s core stars shows that the measurements seem to display higher uncertainties than previous studies suggested; moreover, for the most massive stars in the cluster, R136a1 and a2, we found previous magnitudes were underestimated by at least 0.4 mag. As such, luminosities and masses of these stars have to be significantly scaled down, which then also lowers the hitherto observed upper mass limit of stars.
We present a pilot study of using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations to constrain the density structure in the intermediate wind zone of massive stars, in which the wind is extremely sensitive to clumping.
While vitrification has become the method of choice for preservation of human oocytes and embryos, cryopreservation of complex tissues and of large yolk-containing cells, remains largely unsuccessful. One critical step in such instances is appropriate permeation while avoiding potentially toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants. Permeation of water and small non-charged solutes, such as those used as cryoprotectants, occurs largely through membrane channel proteins termed aquaporins (AQPs). Substitution of a Thr by an Ala residue in the pore-forming motif of the zebrafish (Dario rerio) Aqp3b paralog resulted in a mutant (DrAqp3b-T85A) that when expressed in Xenopus or porcine oocytes increased their permeability to ethylene glycol at pH 7.5 and 8.5. The main objective of this study was to test whether ectopic expression of DrAqp3b-T85A also conferred higher resistance to cryoinjury. For this, DrAqp3b-T85A + eGFP (reporter) cRNA, or eGFP cRNA alone, was microinjected into in vivo fertilized 1-cell mouse zygotes. Following culture to the 2-cell stage, appropriate membrane expression of DrAqp3b-T85A was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a primary specific antibody directed against the C-terminus of DrAqp3b. Microinjected 2-cell embryos were then cryopreserved using a fast-freezing rate and low concentration (1.5 M) of ethylene glycol in order to highlight any benefits from DrAqp3b-T85A expression. Notably, post-thaw survival rates were higher (P<0.05) for T85A–eGFP-injected than for -uninjected or eGFP-injected embryos (73±7.3 vs. 28±7.3 or 14±6.7, respectively). We propose that ectopic expression of mutant AQPs may provide an avenue to improve cryopreservation results of large cells and tissues in which current vitrification protocols yield low survival.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic viral pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (natural hosts) with equids, humans, and other vertebrates acting as dead-end hosts. WNV activity in Mexico has been reported in several domestic and wild fauna and in humans, and the virus has been isolated from birds, mosquitoes, and humans. However, no serological studies have been conducted in monkeys, and only two in a limited number of crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii). Here we present data on the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against WNV in 53 healthy wild monkeys (49 Ateles geoffroyi and four Alouatta pigra), and 80 semi-captive healthy crocodiles (60 C. acutus and 20 C. acutus–C. moreletti hybrids) sampled during 2012. None of the monkey sera neutralized WNV, whereas 55% of the crocodile sera presented neutralizing antibodies against WNV. These results can contribute to the design of surveillance programmes in Mexico.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..
IAU Commission 28 (IAU C28: Galaxies) was founded in the late 1930s at which time it had only a small membership (see the historical notes by Sadler et al. 2007). When C28 ended its existence in 2015 there were well over 1000 members on its books. The membership had grown to the point where the effort to keep track of active participants had become a major task. During the C28s tenure 27 IAU Symposia have been devoted to galaxies, the third highest number (Mickaelian 2014)
Mental disorders in the elderly are common, with a 12-month prevalence in the community ranging from 8.54% to 26.4%. Unfortunately, many mental disorders are unrecognized, untreated, and associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of mental disorders in the elderly primary care (PC) population and its associated factors by age groups.
Cross-sectional survey, conducted in 77 PC centers in Catalonia (Spain), 1,192 patients over 65 years old. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed through face-to-face evaluations using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version (SCID-I-RV) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); chronic physical conditions were noted using a checklist; and disability through the Sheehan Disability Scales (SDS).
Nearly 20% of participants had a mental disorder in the previous 12 months. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent, (10.9%) (95% CI = 8.2–14.4), followed by mood disorders (7.4%) (95% CI = 5.7–9.5). Being female, greater perceived stress and having mental health/emotional problems as the main reason for consultation were associated with the presence of any mental disorder. There were no differences in prevalence across age groups. Somatic comorbidity was not associated with the presence of mental disorders.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent among the elderly in PC in Spain. Efforts are needed to develop strategies to reduce this prevalence and improve the well-being of the elderly. Based on our results, we thought it might be useful to assess perceived stress regularly in PC, focusing on people who consult for emotional distress, or that have greater perceived stress.
Magnetic fields are one of the most important drivers of the highly dynamic processes that occur in the lower solar atmosphere. They span a broad range of sizes, from large- and intermediate-scale structures such as sunspots, pores and magnetic knots, down to the smallest magnetic elements observable with current telescopes. On small scales, magnetic flux tubes are often visible as Magnetic Bright Points (MBPs). Apart from simple V/I magnetograms, the most common method to deduce their magnetic properties is the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Here we employ the SIR code for that purpose. SIR is a well-established tool that can derive not only the magnetic field vector and other atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature, line-of-sight velocity), but also their stratifications with height, effectively producing 3-dimensional models of the lower solar atmosphere. In order to enhance the runtime performance and the usability of SIR we parallelized the existing code and standardized the input and output formats. This and other improvements make it feasible to invert extensive high-resolution data sets within a reasonable amount of computing time. An evaluation of the speedup of the parallel SIR code shows a substantial improvement in runtime.
In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.
The crystal structure of the novel metal organic framework (MOF) Zn(C3H5NO2S)2 is described. This MOF can serve as a model for active sites in metalloproteins, on diverse activities such as structural or catalytic functions. Each half of the amino acid act as a bidentate ligand to one Zn and as a monodentate ligand to another Zn, while the disulphide bond presents an important structural function, stabilizing the crystal packing. The structure has been obtained ab initio from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121), with a = 20.0906(7), b = 9.5842(3), c = 5.018 89(13), and V = 966.40(5) Å3, with Z = 4. The structure was determined using a direct space approach, by means of the Monte Carlo technique, followed by Rietveld refinement.