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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Synthesis maps of stellar OH maser emission have revealed that the OH lies in expanding spherical shells typically about 1016 cm in diameter. From the maps and the expansion velocity, derived from the OH spectrum, stellar mass loss rates may be determined. Typical values are 10−5 M⊙/yr. An important application of the stellar OH masers is in the estimation of stellar distances.
A prompt radio burst has been observed from the supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Observations were made at 0.843, 1.415, 2.29, and 8.41 GHz. At frequencies around 1 GHz, the peak flux density reached about 150 mJy and occurred within four days of the supernova. This event may be a weak precursor to a major radio outburst of the type previously observed in other extragalactic supernovae. Radio monitoring of the supernova is continuing at each of the above frequencies, and coordination is underway of a southern hemisphere VLBI array to map the radio outburst region as it expands. Differential astrometry carried out on prime-focus plates taken with the Anglo-Australian telescope indicates that the component, star 1, of Sanduleak's star SK-69202 is within 0.05 ± 0.13 arcsec of the supernova.
The Parkes - Tidbinbilla Interferometer is a radio-linked interferometer using the 64-m telescope at Parkes together with one of the NASA antennas (34-m or 64-m) at Tidbinbilla. With a baseline of 275km, it is currently the world's longest real-time interferometer, and is usable at frequencies of 1.6, 2.3, and 8.4 GHz to give angular resolutions of 0.13, 0.09, and 0.03 arcsec respectively, with a sensitivity of 1–2 mJy rms in 5 minutes at a bandwidth of up to 10MHz.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
We report the development of a radio-linked interferometer which uses the 64-m telescope at Parkes, NSW, and one of the NASA antennas (64-m or 34-m) at Tidbinbilla, ACT. With a baseline of approximately 275 km, this is the world’s longest real-time interferometer; it will be usable at frequencies of 1.6, 2.3, 8.4, and 22 GHz to give angular resolutions of 0.13, 0.09, 0.03, and 0.01 arcsec respectively. The interferometer has already operated successfully in a limited mode and is expected to become fully operational in its initial configuration by September 1985. Operation at a range of frequencies and with progressive enhancements is planned up to the commissioning of the Australia Telescope in 1988.
We have successfully demonstrated optical aperture synthesis at the 4-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. By using a multi-hole mask over the (re-imaged) primary mirror and recording the resulting fringe patterns with high time resolution, diffraction-limited images of sufficiently bright objects can be reconstructed. The data processing uses closure phases to overcome the effects of atmospheric turbulence. We show an image of the double star η Oph, with component separation 0″.45.
Although only three antennas of the Australia Telescope Compact Array are currently operational, we have made use of the technique of bandwidth synthesis to make an image of the radio galaxy 2152 – 69. The three baselines were used to observe the source at three different frequencies, effectively resulting in nine baselines, which have been used to produce an image with a surprisingly high dynamic range, and with a slightly higher resolution than any existing image.
The production of such a worthwhile result, despite being made with a small subset of the capabilities of the Australia Telescope, bodes well for the future operation of the instrument.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
The 1665 and 1667 MHz OH intensity towards Halley’s comet has been monitored during the period October 1985 to April 1986. The flux density variation during the course of the apparition roughly follows the predictions of Schloerb and Gerard (1985), although we find a systematically lower flux than they predicted. The relative intensities of these lines are approximately in the ratio expected for thermodynamic equilibrium.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
We have detected OH maser radiation from the comet Giacobini-Zinner using the Parkes radio telescope. The emission was detected in two transitions of the ground state of OH, at an intensity consistent with the predicted OH molecular production rate. We also searched unsuccessfully for OH emission from comet Halley, from which we are able to place a significant upper limit on the intensity of OH emission.
We are surveying eight nearby Seyfert galaxies (four Sy1s and four Sy2s) that have compact radio cores, using the VLBA. We are interested in parsec-scale morphology and low-frequency absorption effects, and so are observing four frequencies (1.6, 4.8, 8.4 and 15 GHz) to get spectral-index diagnostics. In this paper, we present results on two galaxies, NGC 1068 and NGC 4151. NGC 4151 shows a curved radio jet on the sub-parsec scale, with the smallest scale structure misaligned by 55° from the jet on scales of parsecs to hundreds of parsecs. NGC 1068 contains several components in the inner tens of parsecs, with those components showing a variety of absorption and resolution effects.
Since the discovery of the 12.2 and 6.7 GHz methanol maser lines, these masers have been studied in great detail. Even in the earliest studies, it appeared that in some fraction of the sources, the maser spots were arranged in lines. This contrasts with the well-studied OH and water masers, in which the masers tended to be clustered almost randomly around a compact H ɪɪ region. Here I describe recent work to investigate the hypothesis that these lines represent edge-on circumstellar disks.
We present radio interferometric observations of a well defined sample of IRAS galaxies with warm far-infrared colors — 60 µm Peakers (60PKs). The core radio power of 60PKs is intermediate to that of “normal” Seyfert 2 galaxies and radio ellipticals, and follows the same relationship with respect to total radio emission as low and high power radio galaxies. This is consistent with the suggestion that 60PKs represent nascent radio elliptical galaxies.
We have used the VLBA to image the 12.2 GHz (20-3−1 E) masing transition of methanol toward the massive star formation region G345.01+1.79. The maser spots are distributed in a curved structure with a near monotonic velocity distribution along the curve. The cluster of maser emission covers an area of approximately 200 milli-arcseconds in right ascension and 70 milli-arcseconds in declination.
Comparison of the positions of the 12.2 GHz methanol maser spots in G345.01+1.79 as determined from the 1995 VLBA observations with 1988 Parkes-Tidbinbilla Interferometer observations shows that the relative positions of the maser spots detected in both epochs has changed by less than 5 milli-arcseconds during that interval. Assuming a distance of 2.3 kpc to G345.01+1.79 implies an upper limit on the relative tangential velocities of the maser spots of 7 km s−1.
Early nutrition is critical for later health and sustainable development. We determined potential effectiveness of the Kenyan Community Health Strategy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a quasi-experimental study design, based on three studies [Pre-intervention (2007–2011; n=5824), Intervention (2012–2015; n=1110) and Comparison (2012–2014; n=487)], which followed mother–child pairs longitudinally to establish EBF rates from 0 to 6 months. The Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) study was a cluster randomized trial; the control arm (MIYCN-Control) received standard care involving community health workers (CHWs) visits for counselling on antenatal and postnatal care. The intervention arm (MIYCN-Intervention) received standard care and regular MIYCN counselling by trained CHWs. Both groups received MIYCN information materials. We tested differences in EBF rates from 0 to 6 months among four study groups (Pre-intervention, MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison) using a χ2 test and logistic regression. At 6 months, the prevalence of EBF was 2% in the Pre-intervention group compared with 55% in the MIYCN-Intervention group, 55% in the MIYCN-Control group and 3% in the Comparison group (P<0.05). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio for EBF from birth to 6 months was 66.9 (95% CI 45.4–96.4), 84.3 (95% CI 40.7–174.6) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.8–8.4) for the MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison group, respectively, compared with the Pre-intervention group. There is potential effectiveness of the Kenya national Community Health Strategy in promoting EBF in urban poor settings where health care access is limited.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.