To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article provides an overview of selected ongoing international efforts that have been inspired by Edward Zigler's vision to improve programs and policies for young children and families in the United States. The efforts presented are in close alignment with three strategies articulated by Edward Zigler: (a) conduct research that will inform policy advocacy; (b) design, implement, and revise quality early childhood development (ECD) programs; and (c) invest in building the next generation of scholars and advocates in child development. The intergenerational legacy left by Edward Zigler has had an impact on young children not only in the United States, but also across the globe. More needs to be done. We need to work together with a full commitment to ensure the optimal development of each child.
Autism is characterized by a broad spectrum of disorders of communication, language skills, social interaction and behaviour (Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD). Studies of twins’ concordance indicate that 85–90% of the ASD variability can be attributed to a genetic basis with a strong genotype-environment interaction. It has been suggested that copy number variations (CNV) contribute significantly to the phenotypic variability of complex disorders such as autism. 10–15% of monozygotic twin pairs show discordance on ASD.
To evaluate CNVs patterns in a pair of male monozygotic twins discordant for ASD.
To identify ASD candidate genomic regions and genes.
A pair of discordant monozygotic twins was diagnosed according to ADOS and ADI-R as Autistic Disorder (twin1) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (twin2). DNA was obtained from blood and saliva and used to perform a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) analysis with the Agilent 2X400K CGH-array. DNA from each twin was compared with a DNA pool obtained from healthy controls. CGH results were analysed by Agilent Genomic Workbench using ADAM2 algorithm (threshold of 6 and a minimum of 4 probes) to identify CNVs.
X-fragile and Angelman Syndrome aetiology were discarded. We identified common and private CNV in blood and saliva. Two CNV regions (CNVR) located at 16p11.2 and 1p36.13 were identified as private for twin1 and twin2, respectively.
CNVR differ among ASD discordant monozygotic twins. 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome has been related to autism. An in deep characterization could allow us to identify candidate genes in ASD.
In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition expected to be the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is problematic in older adults (>75 years) where the presence of comorbidities is more prevalent. Exercise has been recommended irrespective of age and comorbidity. The purpose of this project was to develop a combined exercise and self-management intervention to help older adults with OA to manage their comorbidities.
Literature reviews were conducted to inform the development of an intervention followed by a pilot study to assess feasibility and test outcome measures. Participant interviews and session observation were used to evaluate the pilot study.
Evidence from the literature reviews suggested that a combined intervention consisting of behavioural change/self-management education and exercise was the most appropriate. Each component was developed and then tested as a combined package in a pilot study which comprised 12 sessions delivered over six weeks. Four males and six females aged between 75 and 92 years took part. The average attendance was 89%. Most participants reported some benefit and satisfaction with the programme along with changes in physical ability. The majority of participants continued with some form of exercise at three months.
The intervention was well received and has encouraged 80% of participants to continue exercising after the programme. The small but positive changes seen in comorbidities, benefit of the intervention, satisfaction and general health are promising. Randomised controlled trial evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness is needed before such interventions can be recommended.
CuxO thin films have been deposited on a quartz substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at different target powers Pt (140-190 W) while keeping other growth process parameters fixed. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate considerable improvement of crystallinity for the films deposited at Pt>170 W, with most pronounced excitonic features being observed in the film grown using Pt=190 W. These results corroborate well with the surface morphology of the films, which was found more flat, smooth and homogeneous for Pt >170 W films in comparison with those deposited at lower powers.
Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.
Depression is a clinically relevant dimension, associated with both positive and negative symptoms, in patients with schizophrenia. However, in siblings it is unknown whether depression is associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms.
Depressive symptoms and their association with positive and negative symptoms were examined in 813 healthy siblings of patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, 822 patients and 527 healthy controls. Depressive episodes meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria (lifetime) and depressed mood (lifetime) were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) in all three groups. In the patient group, the severity of positive and negative psychosis symptoms was assessed with the CASH. In the siblings and healthy controls, the severity of subclinical psychosis symptoms was assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE).
Patients reported more lifetime depressed mood and more depressive episodes than both siblings and controls. Siblings had a higher chance of meeting lifetime depressive episodes than the controls; no significant differences in depressed mood were found between siblings and controls. In all three groups the number and duration of depressive symptoms were associated with (sub)clinical negative symptoms. In the patients and siblings the number of depressive symptoms was furthermore associated with (sub)clinical positive symptoms. Finally, lifetime depressed mood showed familial clustering but this clustering was absent for lifetime depressive episodes.
These findings suggest that a co-occurring genetic vulnerability for both depressive and psychotic symptomatology exists on a clinical and a subclinical level.
The aim of this study was to compare waste gas concentrations during xenon or nitrous oxide anaesthesia.
A total of 64 patients were included in this study. Gas concentrations were measured with a mass spectrometer during anaesthesia. The probes were taken beside the patient’s head and thorax and at a height of 180 cm above and at the floor level.
In both groups, waste gas concentrations peak after intubation and extubation. Waste gas levels during xenon anaesthesia are low compared with nitrous oxide.
The low waste gas levels of xenon seem to be beneficial compared to nitrous oxide.
Background and objective: Since the introduction of the laryngeal mask into clinical practice, various additional supraglottic ventilatory devices have been developed. Although it has been demonstrated that the laryngeal tube is an effective airway device during positive pressure ventilation no clinical study has been performed thus far regarding its use in patients with predicted ventilation and intubation difficulties. Methods: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the use of the laryngeal tube for temporary oxygenation and ventilation in adult patients with supraglottic airway tumours scheduled to undergo a pharyngeal–laryngeal oesophagoscopy and bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia. In addition to our standard airway management with face mask ventilation and rigid bronchoscopy, all patients were temporarily ventilated with an laryngeal tube. Also, in patients requiring laryngeal biopsies, endotracheal intubation was performed with a 6.0 mm microlaryngeal tracheal tube. Minute ventilation volumes, tidal volumes, ventilation pressures, end-expiratory CO2 concentration, oxygen saturation and arterial blood gas samples were measured. Results: From 54 enrolled patients only patients with relevant tumour masses were evaluated (n = 23). Mask ventilation was performed without difficulty in 15 of 23 patients. Mechanical ventilation with the laryngeal tube was possible in 22 of 23 patients with an audible leak present in three. Conventional endotracheal intubation was successfully performed in 19 of 23 patients. During face mask ventilation, minute volume, tidal volume, ventilation pressure, end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation and arterial PO2 were significantly lower and PCO2 significantly higher (P < 0.05, paired t-test). No statistically significant differences were noted between the laryngeal tube and the microlaryngeal tracheal tube. Conclusions: The possibility of difficult ventilation and intubation must always be considered in patients with supraglottic airway tumours. In these cases, the laryngeal tube can be considered for routine airway management and may be useful in the ‘cannot-intubate’ situation although difficulties should be anticipated in patients with previous irradiation, specifically of the throat area.
Background and objective: Platelet function abnormalities influence the haemostatic defect in patients with liver failure. Patients after orthotopic liver transplantation present thrombocytopaenia associated with bleeding problems, which may be aggravated by the interaction of hydroxyethyl starches with platelets.
Methods: From 12 patients after liver transplantation venous blood samples (3 mL) were taken before, 20 and 120 min after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch of medium molecular weight (200 kDa/0.5) 6% 10 mL kg−1 over a period of 30 min. Surface expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin were quantified by flow cytometry as well as the percentage of platelet–leucocyte complexes.
Results: A significant decrease of P-selectin expression following administration of hydroxyethyl starch after 120 min (89.1 ± 4.2%, P = 0.029) and a corresponding significant reduction in the formation of platelet– monocyte complexes (81.1 ± 7.8%, P = 0.001) were observed. There was no alteration in the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa expression after hydroxyethyl starch infusion.
Conclusions: Infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 200 kDa/0.5 in clinically relevant doses does not alter glycoprotein IIb/IIIa expression in thrombocytopaenic patients with pre-existing platelet dysfunction after orthotopic liver transplantation. Accordingly, infusion of hydroxyethyl starch may have a beneficial effect on microvascular graft perfusion through the resulting haemodilution and reduced P-selectin expression with subsequent reduced leucocyte–platelet complexes and endothelial adhesion.
Sixty-six broiler flocks were sampled to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. at slaughter in 1998. Thirty flocks (45%) tested positive and C. jejuni was identified in all isolates. Combined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis/amplified fragment length polymorphism (PFGE/AFLP) subtyping of 177 isolates from 24 positive flocks revealed 62 subtypes; 16 flocks harboured more than one subtype. When subtyping 101 clinical C. jejuni isolates collected in the same time period and area, 60 PFGE/AFLP types were identified. Comparison of subtypes from poultry and human isolates revealed three shared PFGE/AFLP types, which were present in 11 human isolates. Fifty per cent of all poultry isolates and 39% of all human isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The present study confirms the increase in ciprofloxacin resistance in both human and poultry C. jejuni isolates in Austria, as observed in several countries worldwide. A small number of human isolates shared PFGE/AFLP types with poultry isolates, however, further studies should also focus on the identification of other sources of C. jejuni infection in humans.
As a tribute to the scientific work of Professor Gareth Thomas
in the field of structure-property relationships this paper
delineates a new possibility of Lorentz transmission electron
microscopy (LTEM) to study the magnetic properties of soft magnetic
films. We show that in contrast to the traditional point of
view, not only does the direction of the magnetization vector
in nano-crystalline films make a correlated small-angle wiggling,
but also the magnitude of the magnetization modulus fluctuates.
This fluctuation produces a rapid modulation in the LTEM image.
A novel analysis of the ripple structure in nano-crystalline
Fe-Zr-N film corresponds to an amplitude of the transversal
component of the magnetization ΔMy
of 23 mT and a longitudinal fluctuation of the magnetization of the
order of ΔMx = 30 mT. The nano-crystalline
films have been prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering with
a thickness between 50 and 1000 nm. The grain size decreased
monotonically with N content from typically 100 nm in the case
of N-free films to less than 10 nm for films containing 8 at%.
The specimens were examined with a JEOL 2010F 200 kV transmission
electron microscope equipped with a post column energy filter
(GIF 2000 Gatan Imaging Filter). For holography, the microscope
is mounted with a biprism (JEOL biprism with a 0.6 μm diameter
This paper describes innovative solutions developed by VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau
(VAI) for bar and wire-rod mills and concerning mechanical equipment as well as automation
systems. Among them, the Precision Rolling System (PRS) was first implemented at Chaparral
Steel (USA) and the Minimum Tension Control is applied at BMZ (Belarus). Benefits are:
improved product quality, greater mill availability, increased flexibility and productivity.
In order to compare the effect of atropine and sodium chloride on the dynamic compliance of the respiratory system after tracheal intubation, we studied 20 patients allocated randomly into two groups to receive either: atropine after 5 min of steady state and sodium chloride after 10 min (group A) or in reverse order (group B) intravenously. The study was conducted in a randomized double-blinded manner. The patients were anaesthetized with thiopental 5 mg kg−1 followed by thiopental 50 mg intravenously, as required. Intubation was facilitated by atracurium 0.5mg kg−1 intravenously and fentanyl 200 μg intravenously. During fixed volume ventilation (100 mL kg−1, f=10), compliance and end-tidal carbon dioxide were measured every 10 s by a Datex AS/3-respiratory module connected to a portable IBM-pc. Five minutes was allowed to establish a steady state then either atropine or sodium chloride was administered according to the protocol. Respiratory dynamic compliance increased significantly after intravenous administration of atropine (P < 0.05). We conclude that atropine 1.0 mg given intravenously provides protection against an intubation-induced decline in respiratory dynamic compliance.
Background. The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological
well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health
Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are
still limited and their findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure
of the Dutch version of the W-BQ.
Methods. A cross-validation design was used. A total of 1472 people with diabetes completed the
W-BQ and were randomly assigned to group A or B. In group A (N = 736), exploratory factor
analyses were conducted. Group B (N = 736) was split up into four subgroups of male or female
patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In these subgroups, confirmatory factor analyses were
employed to test the model(s) developed in group A and the two models described in the literature
(four-factor model with 22 items and a three-factor model with 12 items).
Results. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor model with 21 items (negative well-being,
energy and positive well-being). In the subgroups of group B confirmatory factor analyses only
accepted the three-factor model with 12 items. This factor solution was stable across gender, type
of diabetes and level of education.
Conclusions. The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was
given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items),
negative well-being (four items) and energy (four items).
In a case-control study of cognitive performance, tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, and
pragmatic language were administered to the parents and siblings of 90 community-ascertained probands with autism (AU group) and to the parents and siblings of 40 similarly
ascertained probands with trisomy 21 Down syndrome (DS group). The two samples were
comparable for age and parents' education; both groups were well-educated and had above-average intelligence. AU parents scored slightly but significantly lower on the WAIS-R Full
Scale and Performance IQ, on two subtests (Picture Arrangement and Picture Completion),
and on the Word Attack Test (reading nonsense words) from the Woodcock-Johnson
battery. There were no differences between AU and DS siblings. As in earlier studies, AU
parents, more often than DS parents, reported a history of early language-related cognitive
difficulties; we were not able to replicate this in siblings. AU parents who reported such
difficulties scored significantly lower on Verbal IQ, spelling, and the nonsense reading test.
AU parents without a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties often had a
Verbal IQ that exceeded Performance IQ by more than one standard deviation. AU siblings
with early language-related difficulties had similar findings: lower Verbal IQ, poorer spelling,
and poorer reading scores, compared to AU siblings without such a history. Parents with a
positive history also scored worse on a measure of pragmatic language,the Pragmatic Rating
Scale, but not on measures of social-related components of the broader autism phenotype.
We propose that cognitive differences in a subset of autism family members are
manifestations of the language-related component of the broader autism phenotype, and
separate from the social-related component. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there
are several genes that may interact to cause autism which segregate independently and have
distinguishable manifestations in family members. The hypothesis would be further
supported by finding different patterns of genetic loci linked to autism in families where one
or both parents has language difficulties.