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Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
Prior research has documented shared heritable contributions to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) as well as NSSI and suicide attempt (SA). In addition, trauma exposure has been implicated in risk for NSSI and suicide. Genetically informative studies are needed to determine common sources of liability to all three self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, and to clarify the nature of their associations with traumatic experiences.
Multivariate biometric modeling was conducted using data from 9526 twins [59% female, mean age = 31.7 years (range 24–42)] from two cohorts of the Australian Twin Registry, some of whom also participated in the Childhood Trauma Study and the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Project.
The prevalences of high-risk trauma exposure (HRT), NSSI, SI, and SA were 24.4, 5.6, 27.1, and 4.6%, respectively. All phenotypes were moderately to highly correlated. Genetic influences on self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and HRT were significant and highly correlated among men [rG = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.37–0.81)] and women [rG = 0.56 (0.49–0.63)]. Unique environmental influences were modestly correlated in women [rE = 0.23 (0.01–0.45)], suggesting that high-risk trauma may confer some direct risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among females.
Individuals engaging in NSSI are at increased risk for suicide, and common heritable factors contribute to these associations. Preventing trauma exposure may help to mitigate risk for self-harm and suicide, either directly or indirectly via reductions in liability to psychopathology more broadly. In addition, targeting pre-existing vulnerability factors could significantly reduce risk for life-threatening behaviors among those who have experienced trauma.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Haberle et al. (1996) and Joshi, Haberle & Reynolds (1997) demonstrated that for a planet receiving Earth-level insolation, a 100 mb pure CO2 atmosphere would carry enough heat flux to the dark side of a synchronously rotating planet (SRP) to prevent the atmosphere freezing out there. For a 1,500 mb pure CO2 atmosphere and 0.8 Earth insolation, liquid water could survive over much of the planet. Such high partial pressures of CO2 may seem like special pleading, but in fact, they are not essential for habitable conditions. The effective grey optical depth of the present terrestrial atmosphere (with just 350 ppm CO2, and H2O as the principal greenhouse gas) is approximately 0.9, as against 1.0 for a 1,000 mb pure CO2 atmosphere, so the latter serves merely as a useful approximation (for a truly Earth-type atmosphere, temperatures would be a few degrees lower over the lit hemisphere). Heath et al. (1999) concluded that even forest-habitable conditions, suitable for Earth-like trees (Heath 1996) were not to be ruled out on the basis of present knowledge. Recent work by Joshi (2004) has modelled the range of climatic options for certain land-sea distributions, and these leave the door open for further investigations of combinations of geography and insolation compatible with forest-habitability.
Eating less frequently is associated with increased obesity risk in older children but data are potentially confounded by reverse causation, where bigger children eat less often in an effort to control their weight. Longitudinal data, particularly in younger children, are scarce. We aimed to determine whether eating frequency (meals and snacks) at 2 years of age is associated with past, current or subsequent BMI.
Cohort analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Eating frequency at 2 years of age was estimated using 48 h diaries that recorded when each child ate meals and snacks (parent-defined) in five-minute blocks. Body length/height and weight were measured at 1, 2 and 3·5 years of age. Linear regression assessed associations between the number of eating occasions and BMI Z-score, before and after adjustment for potential confounding variables.
Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Children (n 371) aged 1–3·5 years.
On average, children ate 5·5 (sd 1·2) times/d at 2 years of age, with most children (88–89 %) eating 4–7 times/d. Eating frequency at 2 years was not associated with current (difference in BMI Z-score per additional eating occasion; 95 % CI: −0·02; −0·10, 0·05) or subsequent change (0·02; −0·03, 0·06) in BMI. Similarly, BMI at age 1 year did not predict eating frequency at 2 years of age (difference in eating frequency per additional BMI Z-score unit; 95 % CI: −0·03; −0·19, 0·13).
Number of eating occasions per day was not associated with BMI in young children in the present study.
To investigate relationships between mortality and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol (25(OH)D2).
Case–cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). We measured 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in archived dried blood spots by LC–MS/MS. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR), with adjustment for confounders.
The MCCS included 29 206 participants, who at recruitment in 1990–1994 were aged 40–69 years, had dried blood spots collected and no history of cancer. For the present study we selected participants who died by 31 December 2007 (n 2410) and a random sample (sub-cohort, n 2996).
The HR per 25 nmol/l increment in concentration of 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·96; P=0·007) and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·95; P=0·003), respectively. Of 5108 participants, sixty-three (1·2 %) had detectable 25(OH)D2; their mean 25(OH)D concentration was 11·9 (95 % CI 7·3, 16·6) nmol/l higher (P<0·001). The HR for detectable 25(OH)D2 was 1·80 (95 % CI 1·09, 2·97; P=0·023); for those with detectable 25(OH)D2, the HR per 25 nmol/l increment in 25(OH)D was 1·06 (95 % CI 0·87, 1·29; P interaction=0·02). HR were similar for participants who reported being in good, very good or excellent health four years after recruitment.
Total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with mortality. The finding that the inverse association for 25(OH)D was restricted to those with no detectable 25(OH)D2 requires confirmation in populations with higher exposure to ergocalciferol.
Genetic influences contribute significantly to co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders. Estimating the extent of overlap can assist in the development of phenotypes for genomic analyses.
Multivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using data from 9577 individuals, including 3982 complete twin pairs and 1613 individuals whose co-twin was not interviewed (aged 24–37 years) from two Australian twin samples. Analyses examined the genetic correlation between alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence and the extent to which the correlations were attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder.
Additive genetic (a2 = 0.48–0.65) and non-shared environmental factors explained variance in substance use disorders. Familial effects on conduct disorder were due to additive genetic (a2 = 0.39) and shared environmental (c2 = 0.15) factors. All substance use disorders were influenced by shared genetic factors (rg = 0.38–0.56), with all genetic overlap between substances attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder. Genes influencing individual substance use disorders were also significant, explaining 40–73% of the genetic variance per substance.
Among substance users in this sample, the well-documented clinical co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders is primarily attributable to shared genetic liability. Interventions targeted at generally reducing deviant behaviors may address the risk posed by this shared genetic liability. However, there is also evidence for genetic and environmental influences specific to each substance. The identification of these substance-specific risk factors (as well as potential protective factors) is critical to the future development of targeted treatment protocols.
While recent years have seen rapid growth in the number of galaxy peculiar velocity measurements, disagreements remain about the extent to which the peculiar velocity field - a tracer of the large-scale distribution of mass - agrees with both ΛCDM expectations and with velocity field models derived from redshift surveys. The 6dF Galaxy Survey includes peculiar velocities for nearly 9 000 early-type galaxies (6dFGSv), making it the largest and most homogeneous galaxy peculiar velocity sample to date. We have used the 6dFGS velocity field to determine the amplitude and scale of large-scale cosmic flows in the local universe and test standard cosmological models. We also compare the galaxy density and peculiar velocity fields to establish the distribution of dark and luminous matter and better constrain key cosmological parameters such as the redshift-space distortion parameter.
An extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparation of the C60 and C70 fullerenes is described. An efficient separatory technique is described which implements a phenylglycine based HFLC column for preparation of high purity (99.99%) C60 and C70 samples. Treatment of C60 with osmium tetroxide and pyridine gives the osmate ester (2:1 adduct) and establishes that oxygen functionality can be added to C60 without disrupting the carbon framework. Raman spectroscopy of high purity C60 indicates that several lines previously not assigned to C60 (D.S.Bethune, G.Meijer, W.C.Tang, and H.J.Rosen, Chem.Phys.Lett.174, 219(1990)) are attributable to C60.
A method for synthesizing crystalline and/or amorphous silicon nanoparticles (3 – 30 nm diameter) is discussed. The photoluminescence (PL) behaviour of these particles is studied as crystallinity, size, surface stoichiometry, and excitation frequency are varied. Orange-red photoluminescence (PL), similar to that reported for “porous silicon,” is observed. The wavelength dependence of this PL is not a function of size, but rather particle crystallinity. A separate PL feature, near 430 nm, is reported. No size dependent effects are observed for this feature.
We describe a theory for hole nucleation in volatile, wetting, thin liquid films. Hole nucleation in this system can occur due to two independent driving forces: evaporation (volatile hole nucleation) and by disjoining pressure effects (non-volatile hole nucleation). Although a concerted combination of these two can be in effect, the cases are treated separately here and will be treated jointly in the context of a simulation elsewhere. Growing holes – dry areas of the solid surface which are otherwise wet by solvent – are conjectured to be responsible for the formation of close-packed 2D annular ringlike arrays from dilute solutions of nearly monodisperse, large (3–5nm diameter), organically passivated metal particles . When organic solutions of these nanoparticles are evaporated on a solid carbon substrate (a TEM grid), the resulting sub-monolayer structures are annular ringlike arrays due to the pinning of the rim of an opening hole by a sufficient collection of particles.
This paper describes a combined experimental and modelling programme of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential highlevel radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionised water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60°C. Thermodynamic chemical modelling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results.
We have recently been successful utilizing two methods which are new to the study of CIGS thin film samples: drive-level capacitance profiling, and transient photocapacitance spectroscopy. In this paper we review several of the key results that we have obtained by applying these methods to the study of the CIGS alloys over the past 2 years. This has resulted not only in new information concerning the deep defects and their spatial distributions in these materials, but also to more accurate determinations of free carrier densities, and of minority carrier trapping dynamics within the junction region. Light-induced metastable changes in the deep defect properties of these alloys are also documented through the use of these techniques.
The electronic properties of polycrystalline CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS) films, which are incorporated as the absorber layer in photovoltaic devices, have been studied to better understand limitations on device performance. These studies have shown that compared to lower Al content films and to CuIn1-yGaySe2films, films with x ≥ 0.29 are relatively intrinsic, spatially nonuniform, and have broader bandtails characterized by much higher Urbach energies. This indicates that the CIAS films with x ≥ 0.29 are significantly more disordered than lower Al content CIAS or corresponding CIGS films, which likely negatively impacts the resulting photovoltaic device performance.
The role of Nirex is to provide the United Kingdom with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of all intermediate level and some low level radioactive waste. Nirex has developed its Phased Disposal Concept as one option for the long-term management of radioactive materials. The Phased Disposal Concept represents a stepwise and reversible approach to the disposal of radioactive waste within a deep geological repository that involves the immobilisation of wastes in containers (mainly fabricated from stainless steel) that are surrounded by a cementitious backfill.
The wastes for potential disposal contain materials that may require consideration on the basis of their potential non-radiological hazards. This paper describes a preliminary two-stage methodology for assessing the post-closure impact of the disposal of chemically toxic materials to a conceptual Nirex repository. The study suggests some materials either exceeded current estimates of safe levels, or their impact could not be quantified at this stage but was considered to be of concern. These materials included beryllium, phenol, benzene, and nitrite.
Associations between parental depression and offspring affective and disruptive disorders are well documented. Few genetically informed studies have explored the processes underlying intergenerational associations.
A semi-structured interview assessing DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders was administered to twins (n=1296) from the Australian Twin Register (ATR), their spouses (n=1046) and offspring (n=2555). We used the Children of Twins (CoT) design to delineate the extent to which intergenerational associations were consistent with a causal influence or due to genetic confounds.
In between-family analyses, parental depression was associated significantly with offspring depression [hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–1.93] and conduct disorder (CD; HR 2.27, CI 1.31–3.93). Survival analysis indicated that the intergenerational transmission of depression is consistent with a causal (environmental) inference, with a significant intergenerational association in offspring of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (HR 1.39, CI 1.00–1.94). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the parental depression–offspring CD association was due to shared genetic liability in the parents and offspring. No intergenerational association was found when comparing the offspring of discordant MZ twins [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, CI 0.63–3.14], but offspring of discordant dizygotic (DZ) twins differed in their rates of CD (OR 2.53, CI 0.95–6.76). All findings remained after controlling for several measured covariates, including history of depression and CD in the twins' spouses.
The mechanisms underlying associations between parental depression and offspring psychopathology seem to differ depending on the outcome. The results are consistent with a causal environmental role of parental depression in offspring depression whereas common genetic factors account for the association of parental depression and offspring CD.
After the barbarians' [i.e., the Persians'] flight from Marathon, Miltiades asked the Athenians for a fleet, promising, if he received it, to provide the city with a large sum of money from a certain country. This is how he put it, concealing the name of the country, and he took all the ships he asked for and sailed to the island of Paros, which had sided with the barbarians. He placed the Parians under siege; but when he wished to force an entrance [into the town], he was maimed in the leg. Xanthippus accuses him of deceiving the people by charging that he made the Parians a gift of his withdrawal. <Let us take the part of the defendant.>
 Marathon was not enough to free Miltiades of suspicion, and despite that famous battle he was haled into court, scarcely able to walk because of the pain of his injury. The Athenian democracy took the view that not even the foremost citizen should escape investigation. This is why I come here and guide the man's steps.  He is represented by Herodotus as a silent character who only indicates his injury with his hand. But for my part, I wanted to hear Miltiades' tongue, and it distressed me to see such an orator remaining speechless.
A wealthy miser had a son whom he wished to marry off to a rich but ugly girl. The young man rejected the arrangement. Meanwhile, there was a festival, and, in the course of it, the young man saw and fell in love with another girl, beautiful but poor. He applied to his father to be allowed to marry her, but failed in his request. War broke out. He became a war-hero and, being allowed by the laws to choose his reward, asked to be given the woman he loved. His father opposes his plea. Let us take the part of the miser.
 The old man in the declamation has also been possessed by love – not of a beautiful maiden (old age is usually chaste in such matters), but of a rich dowry. Even if he seems to be exhorting his son to behave well, even if he reproaches him with his passion for the girl, in fact every word he utters tends to the single goal towards which he has resolved from the beginning to direct his life.  This is why he thinks the rich girl preferable. Perhaps he does not even see that she is so ugly, because his understanding is blinded by his love of the dowry, so that, in the eyes of this miserly judge, poverty also diminishes the poor girl's beauty.