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Prospective memory (PM) is dependent on executive processes known to be impaired in Huntington's disease (HD); however, no study to the authors’ knowledge has investigated PM in this group. We examined performance-based, semi-naturalistic, and self-reported PM in 20 individuals diagnosed with mild–moderate HD and 20 demographically similar controls. Relative to controls, HD participants demonstrated significantly lower scores in time-based PM, event-based PM (at a trend level), and the semi-naturalistic PM trial, all of which were marked by omission errors. HD participants demonstrated comparable recognition memory for the PM intentions relative to controls. HD and control participants also showed comparable scores in self-reported PM complaints. The results suggest that HD is associated with deficits in the strategic aspects of PM. HD-associated PM deficits also are evident in real-world situations, which may relate to an apparent meta-memory deficit for PM functioning as indicated by HD participants’ overestimation of their PM performance on self-report. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–8)
Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend.
An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors.
Within the USA.
US children (n 1224) aged 8–18 years.
Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1 % of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9 %) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1 %). Most children (91·1 %) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1 %); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2 %); not be able to play sports well (84·5 %); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8 %). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children.
Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.
Zn substitution for Cu in YBa2Cu3O7 rapidly reduces the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. Superconductivity is quenched between x=0.08 (T =30 K) and x=0.10. The normal state paramagnetism grows with Zn substu-tition, presumably due to increased localization on the Cu sublattice. Susceptibility studies of oxygen depleted (nonsuperconducting) Zn-substituted samples support this. Strong non-linear isothermal magnetization suggesting an internal magnetic field is found at T=4.2 K in samples with Zn concentration near to the critical value for suppression of superconductivity. The results are discussed in terms of increased localization of d-electrons on the Cu sites with increasing Zn concentration, which is consistent with recent EPR data.
Single phase orthorhombic YBa2(Cuy1−xZnx)3O7 samples were formed for 0<x<0.16. The high T superconductivityXfor x=6 (T =90 K) is rapidly depressed with increasing x, and is quenched for x>0.08. Low field (<100 G) cooled magnetization studies show that the superconducting component decreases as x approaches the critical value for suppression of superconductivity, and this is supported by high resolution specific heat measurements in the vicinity of T. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity studies for x<0.08 show metallic behavior; for x>0.10 semiconducting behavior. The electrical resistance was studied at high quasihydrostatic pressures also, and for x=0.08 showed that T is depressed with increasing pressure: T → 0 K for P >10 GPa. This is in°contrast to YBa2(Cuy1−xZnx)3O7 where dT /dP>0. The data support evidence for the high sensitivity to chemical and ice perturbations of the physical properties of samples near the superconducting-normal transition region.
In this paper, we report a novel low thermal budget process (<800°C) for engineered ultra thin oxynitride dielectrics with high nitrogen concentration (>5% a.c.) using vertical high pressure (VHP) process. VHP grown oxynitride films show >1 OX lower leakage current, higher drive current and superior hot-carrier reliability compared to control SiO2 of identical thickness (Tox,eq) grown by RTP in O2.
Benjamin C. T. Field, Department of Metabolic Medicine, Division of Investigative Science, Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK,
Caroline J. Small, Department of Metabolic Medicine, Division of Investigative Science, Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK,
Stephen R. Bloom, Department of Metabolic Medicine, Division of Investigative Science, Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK
Obesity is a global phenomenon, a disease which is spread by increasing urbanization and which causes major morbidity and mortality. Over the last two decades it has reached unprecedented and dramatic levels in industrially developed countries but the rise in prevalence affects almost every part of the world. It is already placing huge burdens on the health systems of many countries. Its potential to cause disability amongst working-age populations worldwide, particularly as a result of complications of diabetes, makes it imperative to work towards both preventative and curative solutions.
Yet, despite the fact that obesity has become such a widespread disease, there remains within the medical community a tradition of stigmatizing individual sufferers. Doctors and other health professionals have tended to provide what is seen as self-evident advice, namely, to consume less food and to expend more energy through physical activity. The subsequent failure of patients to lose weight, despite good advice, and in the face of complications of their condition, is then viewed as evidence of an inability to control lifestyles and to resist urges. At the root of this view lies an historical absence of knowledge of the hugely complex and fascinating innate homeostatic mechanism which controls satiety and energy balance: a mechanism that has evolved over millions of years, has seen humankind through feast and famine, and has run into trouble only since the advent of mechanization.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone released from the pancreas in response to food ingestion and remains elevated for up to 6 h postprandially. Plasma levels are elevated in patients with pancreatic tumours. An intravenous infusion of PP has been reported to reduce food intake in man, suggesting that PP is a satiety hormone. We investigated whether a lower infusion rate of PP would induce significant alterations in energy intake. The study was randomised and double-blinded. Fourteen lean fasted volunteers (five men and nine women) received 90 min infusions of PP (5 pmol/kg per min) and saline on two separate days. The dose chosen was half that used in a previous human study which reported a decrease in appetite but at supra-physiological levels of PP. One hour after the end of the infusion, a buffet lunch was served and energy intake measured. PP infusion was associated with a significant 11 % reduction in energy intake compared with saline (2440 (se 200) v. 2730 (se 180) kJ; P < 0·05). Preprandial hunger as assessed by a visual analogue score was decreased in the PP-treated group compared to saline. These effects were achieved with plasma levels of PP within the pathophysiological range of pancreatic tumours.
To evaluate the risk of transmission of SARS coronavirus outside of the health-care setting, close household and community contacts of laboratory-confirmed SARS cases were identified and followed up for clinical and laboratory evidence of SARS infection. Individual- and household-level risk factors for transmission were investigated. Nine persons with serological evidence of SARS infection were identified amongst 212 close contacts of 45 laboratory- confirmed SARS cases (secondary attack rate 4·2%, 95% CI 1·5–7). In this cohort, the average number of secondary infections caused by a single infectious case was 0·2. Two community contacts with laboratory evidence of SARS coronavirus infection had mild or sub-clinical infection, representing 3% (2/65) of Vietnamese SARS cases. There was no evidence of transmission of infection before symptom onset. Physically caring for a symptomatic laboratory-confirmed SARS case was the only independent risk factor for SARS transmission (OR 5·78, 95% CI 1·23–24·24).
A family of sealant materials has been developed for use in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and in other applications in the temperature range of 800–1000 °C. These materials are based on glasses and glass-ceramics in the SrO–La2O3–Al2O3–B2O3–SiO2 system. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) for these materials are in the range of 8–13 × 10−6/°C, a good match with those of the SOFC components. These sealant materials bond well with the ceramics of the SOFC and, more importantly, form bonds that can be thermally cycled without failure. At the fuel cell operating temperature, the sealants have viscosities in the range of 104–106 Pa-s, which allow them to tolerate a CTE mismatch of about 20% among the bonded substrates. The gas tightness of a sample seal was demonstrated in a simple zirconia-based oxygen concentration cell.
The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 patients with metastatic breast cancer was studied prospectively. The 1 year intervention consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with self-hypnosis for pain. Both the treatment (n = 50) and control groups (n = 36) had routine oncological care. At 10 year follow-up, only 3 of the patients were alive, and death records were obtained for the other 83. Survival from time of randomisation and onset of intervention was a mean 36.6 (SD 37.6) months in the intervention group compared with 18.9 (10.8) months in the control group, a significant difference. Survival plots indicated that divergence in survival began at 20 months after entry, or 8 months after intervention ended.
Many studies have demonstrated positive psychosocial effects of group therapy in cancer patients, including improvements in mood, adjustment, and pain. However, few studies have prospectively examined medical effects. In general, patients who receive psychotherapy survived longer. Our objective was to assess whether group therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer had any effect on survival. This group intervention has been reported to improve the psychological well-being of such patients. We started with the belief that positive psychological and symptomatic effects could occur without affecting the course of the disease; we expected to improve the quality of life without affecting its quantity. Here we describe a 10 year follow-up of the effect of psychosocial intervention on disease progression and mortality.
Patients and methods
Only subjects with documented metastatic carcinoma of the breast were included. 109 women were referred by their oncologists. Those patients who agreed were called upon by our research interviewer, who told them about the study and invited them to participate. Of this group, 86 completed the first questionnaire, while 18 others refused to participate and 5 died before contact. After written informed consent was obtained (protocol approved by Stanford Human Subjects Committee), a battery of psychological tests was administered. The subjects were then randomly assigned to either the intervention or control groups, and initial follow-up was done every 4 months for a year. More subjects were randomly assigned to therapy (n = 50) than to control (n = 36) to ensure enough patients for group work.
Various criteria, in terms of forward differences and related operations on coefficients, are shown to imply that certain series on bounded Vilenkin groups represent integrable functions. These results include analogues of known integrability theorems for trigonometric series. The method of proof is to pass from the given series to a derived series, and to deduce the integrability of the original series from smoothness properties of the latter.
Plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentrations rise by 320±81 per cent following administration of electroconvulsive therapy. This rise is observed in the first ten minutes despite premedication of patients with 0.6 mg atropine. Pancreatic polypeptide release is dependent on cholinergic tone and is very sensitive to atropine. The dramatic rise in pancreative polypeptide observed following electroconvulsive therapy probably results from vagal stimulation and reflects insufficient atropine premedication.
Constipation is a frequent effect of treatment with antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs as a result of interference with neuronal control of colonic muscular activity. Motilin, a circulating peptide, is involved in induction of myoelectric complexes in the colon. Significantly elevated circulating basal motilin levels were found in patients receiving tricyclic antidepressant drugs, mean 128±33 pmol/l (control 48±6 pmol/l) or neuroleptic therapy, mean 213±29 pmol/l (control 87±8 pmol/l).