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The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
NGC 7027 is justifiably THE template spectrum for PNe. Its vast range of emission species – from molecular and neutral to ions with ionization potential > 120eV – its high surface brightness and accessibiliy for northern observatories make it the PN laboratory of choice. However the quality of the spectra from the UV to the IR is mixed, many line fluxes and identifications still remaining unchecked from photographic or image tube spectra. Very deep spectra of NGC 7027 (emission line strengths <10-4 of Hβ) in the 0.65 to 1.05μm region (Baluteau et al. 1995) showed the presence of many faint emission lines. Pequignot & Baluteau (1994) showed that heavy elements from the 4th, 5th and 6th rows of the Periodic Table have much higher abundances than Solar, confirming the synthesis of neutron capture elements in low mass stars and providing new constraints on stellar evolution theory.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.
We have conducted a survey of the Lyα forest in the redshift domain 2.15 < z < 3.37 in front of nine QSOs within a 1o field to probe spatial structure along planes perpendicular to the line-of-sight. We find evidence for correlations of the Lyα absorption line wavelengths in the whole redshift range, and, at z > 2.8, of their equivalent widths. Such a correlation is consistent with the emerging picture that Lyα lines arise in filaments or large, flattened structures.
The last triennium marked the 50th anniversary of the paper describing the first observations of cosmic radio emission by Karl Jansky in 1933. Sullivan (82 Classics in Radio Astronomy, Reidel) has published a collection of the major historical papers in radio astronomy, and collections of papers discussing the historical development have been published by Sullivan (84 Early Years of Radio Astronomy, Cambridge Univ. Press) and by Kellermann and Sheets (84 Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy, NRAO).
We are analyzing the emission lines and continuum spectra of a sample of ~61 radio-loud quasars to investigate dependences amongst various spectral, radio, and X-ray parameters, in particular to look for dependences of spectral properties on inclination of the the radio-jet axis (Wills et al. 1997).
We have carried out conventional correlation analyses, as well as spectral principal-component analyses (SPCA) as described in the previous paper (Wills et al. 1997). We found that the single largest contribution to the spectrum-tospectrum variations was from a component — the ‘first principal component’ (PC1) — that has a more UV (or less red) continuum than the mean spectrum, and a weaker narrow-line (NLR) spectrum. The ‘second principal component’ (PC2) accounts for only 8–12% of the spectrum-to-spectrum variation, contributing a weaker UV, and stronger red continuum, and showing stronger narrow emission lines. There is also a tendency for the broad (BLR) lines in the second principal component spectrum to be narrower (note the sharper He II λ1640 and [O III] λ1663 features redward of the stronger C IV λ1549 emission line, and perhaps a narrow component of the N V λ1240 line redward of Lyα).
We have obtained HST and ground-based spectrophotometry of a sample of ~61 radio-loud quasars from shortward of Lyα to longward of Hβ. The aim was to investigate the dependence of quasar properties on orientation of the central engine axis to the observer’s line of sight. As an approximate measure of inclination we use the radio core-dominance, i.e., the ratio of beamed radiocore emission to the emission in the extended lobes at 5 GHz rest frequency. About half the radio sources have core-dominance greater than unity (jet or axis pointed close to our line of sight). Quasar pairs were matched in radio lobe luminosity and redshift to reduce bias caused by strong dependences on intrinsic luminosity.
Observation and reduction techniques were standard, and the spectral resolution is equivalent to 230–400 km s−1 (Wills et al. 1993). We have performed correlation analyses among emission-line and continuum parameters, as well as spectral principal-component analyses (SPCA, Francis et al. 1992).
A geological disposal facility (GDF) will include fissile materials that could, under certain conditions, lead to criticality. Demonstration of criticality safety therefore forms an important part of a GDF's safety case.
Containment provided by the waste package will contribute to criticality safety during package transport and the GDF operational phase. The GDF multiple-barrier system will ensure that criticality is prevented for some time after facility closure. However, on longer post-closure timescales, conditions in the GDF will evolve and it is necessary to demonstrate: an understanding of the conditions under which criticality could occur; the likelihood of such conditions occurring; and the consequences of criticality should it occur.
Work has addressed disposal of all of the UK's higher-activity wastes in three illustrative geologies. This paper, however, focuses on presenting results to support safe disposal of spent fuel, plutonium and highlyenriched uranium in higher-strength rock.
The results support a safety case assertion that post-closure criticality is of low likelihood and, if it was to occur, the consequences would be tolerable.
Two years ago the Cambridge 4-aerial interferometer  was adapted to work at a frequency of 159 Mc/s, the resolving power thereby being increased by a factor of four over that at the previous frequency, 81.5 Mc/s. The overall beamwidth at 159 Mc/s is 1.2 degrees by 7 degrees but the beam contains interference fringes in two planes at right angles, so that, by phase-switching between the east pair and the west pair of aerials, sources with angular diameters greater than about 7 minutes of arc are eliminated. A survey using this technique has been carried out by Edge and Shakeshaft and may be called a “small diameter” survey. If the phase-switching receiver is connected between the north pair and the south pair of aerials it is possible to record sources with diameters up to about 1 degree and to measure diameters between 2 and 8 minutes of arc. Archer and Baldwin have used the aerial in this way to make a “large diameter” survey. These two surveys will be referred to collectively as the 3C survey.
Kraus and Ko  and Hanbury Brown and Hazard  have suggested that the band of radio emission running roughly perpendicular to the galactic plane at about 12h right ascension, represents the integrated emission from the concentration of bright galaxies lying along a great circle that crosses the galactic plane at longitudes l = 105 degrees and 285 degrees. This paper puts forward certain difficulties in this interpretation. These galaxies and our own are believed by de Vaucouleurs [3, 4] to be members of a “cluster of clusters,” which he terms the local supergalaxy, after Shapley.
We report on the preparation and characterization of crystalline bismuth oxide thin films via Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition method. A focused blue laser (405nm) is used to write an array of dots in the bismuth oxide thin film and demonstrate clear and circular recording marks in form of “bubbles” or “little volcanos” (FWHM ∼500nm). Results indicate excellent static recording characteristics, writing sensitivity and contrast. The recording mechanism is investigated and is believed to be related to laser-induced morphology change.
When droplets of dilute suspensions are left to evaporate the final dry residue is typically the familiar coffee-ring stain, with nearly all material deposited at the initial triple line (Deegan et al., Nature, vol. 389, 1997, pp. 827–829). However, aqueous poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) droplets only form coffee-ring stains for a very narrow range of the experimental parameters molecular weight, concentration and drying rate. Instead, over a wide range of values they form either a flat disk or a very distinctive tall central monolith via a four-stage deposition process which includes a remarkable bootstrap-building step. To predict which deposit will form, we present a quantitative model comparing the effects of advective build-up at the triple line to diffusive flux and use this to calculate a dimensionless number . By experimentally varying concentration and flux (using a low-pressure drying chamber), the prediction is tested over nearly two orders of magnitude in both variables and shown to be in good agreement with the boundary between disks and monoliths at .
A model for the early Palaeozoic metamorphic history of the Midland Valley and adjacent areas to the S in Scotland, England and Ireland is based on the results of new field mapping, thin section petrography, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractometry, conodont and palynomorph colouration and graptolite reflectance measurement.
The oldest metamorphic rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland, excluding xenoliths in post-Silurian lavas, are possibly the blueschist occurrences in the melange unit of the Ballantrae complex. These may be tectonised remnants of (?)pre-Arenig ocean-floor subducted during closure of the Iapetus Ocean. In the early Ordovician, the melange terrane was dynamothermally metamorphosed during obduction of newly-formed ocean crust. The obduction process piled up a thick sequence of various ocean-floor types such that burial metamorphism in parts reached pumpellyite-actinolite facies; elsewhere prehnite-pumpellyite and zeolite facies was attained.
Whilst the Midland Valley acted as an inter- or fore-arc basin during the Late Ordovician and Silurian and experienced burial metamorphism, an accretionary prism was formed to the S. Accretion, tectonic burial and metamorphism of ocean-floor and trench sediment was continuous in the Southern Uplands and the Longford-Down massif of Ireland through Late Ordovician to Late Silurian times. Rocks at the present-day surface vary from zeolite facies to prehnitepumpellyite facies. Silurian trench-slope basin sediments can be recognised in part by their lower grade of burial metamorphism. Greenschist facies rocks of the prism probably lie close to the surface.
The Lake District island-arc terrane of Northern England has an early Ordovician history of burial metamorphism up to prehnite-pumpellyite facies. The Late Ordovician and Silurian metamorphic history is one of sedimentary burial complicated by tectonism and intrusion of granite plutons to a relatively high level. The Iapetus suture is marked by a weak contrast in metamorphic grade.
The use of psychotropic medication is an important part of most psychiatrists' clinical practice. We propose here that psychiatry needs to give more prominence to psychopharmacology in order to ensure that psychiatric drugs are used effectively and safely. The issue has several ramifications, including the future of psychiatry as a medical discipline.