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Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the association of crops and livestock in mixed farming systems generally benefits both enterprises. This paper focuses on the main contributions of livestock to crop production: the use of manure and animal draught power to produce crops and the investment of income from livestock into technologies that benefit crop production. In low-input, grazing-based feeding operations, manure is a vital soil fertility amendment. In these systems, penning livestock overnight on fields, fallow between cropping periods, returns both manure and urine to the soil and results in much higher crop yields than if manure only is gathered from stalls and spread onto fields. However, most farmers have insufficient manure to sustain food production. Nutrient harvests often exceed nutrient inputs, requiring a much greater use of fertilizers to arrest soil nutrient depletion. The opposite may be true for mixed farming where livestock are given food in confinement. In these emerging systems, the continuous importation of food (and fertilizer) can result in nutrient surpluses with subsequent soil nutrient build-up and loss. The contribution of animal power to crop production is relatively new in Africa. Animal power affects the amount of land cultivated by farmers, crop selection, the yield per farm and per ha, and on the participation and work load of people (family members and outside labour) involved in crop production and its associated activities. In addition to the impacts of manure and draught power on crop production, income derived from livestock is often invested in inputs that enhance crop production. At the ‘micro’ level, livestock income influences crop production (1) directly by allowing households to invest in productive inputs such as fertilizer, hired labour, and carts and (2) indirectly by allowing poor households to improve their nutritional status and, therefore, the productivity of their most important resource, their own labour. At the ‘macro’ level, increased livestock exports have a large stimulating effect on the demand for locally produced goods and services, particularly basic food crops. Thus, increasing the productivity of the livestock sector, including an emphasis on the policy and institutional environment influencing marketing and trade, is an important element of a development strategy focused on stimulating economic growth and alleviating poverty.
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme. In secondary analysis we investigated the prevalence of, and factors associated with, psychological morbidity amongst mothers who were still the primary caregiver of the child (1265 out of 1506) at follow-up (7–11 years post-birth). We measured maternal depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7) and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index-36), using standardized cut-offs and algorithms. In total, 75 (5.9%) mothers met criteria for depression, 37 (2.9%) anxiety and 134 (10.6%) parenting stress. Using complete case logistic regression (n=1206 out of 1265 mothers) as compared to being HIV-negative, testing HIV-positive in pregnancy doubled odds of depression [adjusted odd ratios (aOR)=1.96 [1.0–3.7] P=0.039]. Parenting stress was positively associated with acquisition of HIV after pregnancy (aOR=3.11 [1.9–5.2] P<0.001) and exposure to household crime (aOR=2.02 [1.3–3.2] P=0.003); negatively associated with higher maternal education (aOR=0.29 [0.1–0.8] P=0.014), maternal employment (aOR=0.55 [0.3–0.9] P=0.024). Compared with the standard of care PMTCT, VTS mothers had reduced odds of parenting stress (aOR=0.61 [0.4–0.9] P=0.016). Integrating parental support into mostly bio-medical treatment programmes, during and beyond pregnancy, is important.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
Elevated birth weight is linked to glucose intolerance and obesity health-related complications later in life. No studies have examined if infant birth weight is associated with gene expression markers of obesity and inflammation in a tissue that comes directly from the infant following birth. We evaluated the association between birth weight and gene expression on fetal programming of obesity. Foreskin samples were collected following circumcision, and gene expression analyzed comparing the 15% greatest birth weight infants (n=7) v. the remainder of the cohort (n=40). Multivariate linear regression models were fit to relate expression levels on differentially expressed genes to birth weight group with adjustment for variables selected from a list of maternal and infant characteristics. Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) were significantly upregulated and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and thioredoxin (TXN) downregulated in the larger birth weight neonates v. controls. Multivariate modeling revealed that the estimated adjusted birth weight group difference exceeded one standard deviation of the expression level for eight of the 10 genes. Between 25 and 50% of variation in expression level was explained by multivariate modeling for eight of the 10 genes. Gene expression related to glycemic control, appetite/energy balance, obesity and inflammation were altered in tissue from babies with elevated birth weight, and these genes may provide important information regarding fetal programming in macrosomic babies.
Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of physical and mental illness. Identifying risk factors is an important method of reducing public health impact. We examined the association between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and offspring adolescent sleep problems.
The sample was derived from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participants. A sample with complete data across all variables was used, with four outcome variables. A sensitivity analysis imputing for missing data was conducted (n = 9633).
PND was associated with increased risk of sleep problems in offspring at ages 16 and 18 years. The most robust effects were sleep problems at 18 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1 s.d. increase in PND, 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.39, p < 0.001] and waking more often (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05–1.25, p = 0.003). This remained after controlling for confounding variables including antenatal depression and early sleep problems in infancy.
PND is associated with adolescent offspring sleep problems. Maternal interventions should consider the child's increased risk. Early sleep screening and interventions could be introduced within this group.
Since 1977 we have been engaged on a project to survey the milliarcsecond structure and internal motions of a complete, unbiased sample of 65 radio sources (Pearson and Readhead 1984). One of the goals of the project was to discover more superluminal sources and find out how common they are. The sample contains three established superluminal sources (3C 179, 3C 345, and BL Lacertae); so far we have discovered three new superluminal quasars (0850+581, 1642+690, and 1928+738), and a fourth (3C 216) that may be superluminal. Thus at least six out of the 65 sources are superluminal, and we expect to find more as our observations proceed.
The tree-ring program at Belfast originally aimed at the construction of a 6000-year oak chronology. The stimulus for this work came from the large numbers of sub-fossil oaks uncovered in Northern Ireland during land drainage and motorway construction in the late 1960's (Pilcher et al 1977). It became clear that any attempt to build such a long chronology would break naturally into two distinct units. One unit related to the construction of a prehistoric (BC era) chronology dependent on the sampling of large numbers of essentially random sub-fossil timbers. For this unit to be successful, timbers would have to survive relatively uniformly through time. The second chronology building unit was related principally to the AD era, with a natural extension into the first millennium BC at least. This unit was envisaged as the link between the present day and the necessarily floating sub-fossil chronologies. This AD chronology was based on modern, historic, and archaeologic timbers.
Increasing concern with nuclear waste isolation technology is leading to additional studies of naturally occurring isotopes in ground water. Such studies provide information on 1) the use of radionuclides to estimate ground-water travel times and/or residence times. This information can he an extremely useful adjunct to conventional hydrologic data in developing the understanding of regional hydrology needed in the site selection process, and 2) the use of natural radionuclides as analogues to the behavior of radionuclides of concern in nuclear waste.
The dating equipment and operating conditions remain essentially as previously described. This list includes some small samples counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 76cm Hg. at 20°C. Carbon isotope ratios were obtained and calculated as described (R., 1973, v. 15, p. 212). All samples are from Ireland.
Procedures of measurements and calculation remain as previously described. All samples are pretreated according to the methods described in R, 1971, v 13, p 103 and p 123 unless specified under the sample descriptions. Unless stated samples are from Ireland.
The dating equipment in the Palaeoecology Laboratory remains essentially as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 285–290, and the operating conditions as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 291–297. Small samples, however, have been counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 152 cm Hg at 20°C. Charcoal samples pretreated by nitration have been treated as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 285–290. Other charcoal samples have been pretreated using the following technique developed by P. Q. Dresser: samples are washed in 5% sodium hydroxide; this is followed by treatment in a solution composed of 8% potassium permanganate and 10% sulphuric acid, at 80°C for 20 mins, to remove residual rootlets and organic matter. Unless specifically stated, the samples have been collected by the authors and other members of the Laboratory: M. G. L. Baillie, P. Q. Dresser, Adelaide Goddard, and I. Goddard. Where a sample has been collected for a specific research project the collector's initials are given. Routine operation of the dating apparatus has been carried out by Mrs. Marilyn Carse and Mrs. Florence Qua to whom we are much indebted.
High-precision measurement of dendrochronologically dated Irish oak at bi-decade/decade intervals has continued in the Belfast laboratory, extending the 14C data base from ca AD 1840 to 5210 BC. The dendrochronology is now considered absolute (see Belfast dendrochronology this conference) (Brown et al, 1986) and a continuous detailed curve is presented, showing the natural variations in the atmospheric concentration of 14C over >7000 years. Each data point has a precision of <2.5., and some 4500 years have now been compared with Seattle, giving excellent agreement. Discussion of this data base and the justification of the claimed accuracy is given together with a comparison of other chronologies. Some of the advantages and limitations of the above are discussed.
The dating equipment in the Queen's University Palaeoecology Laboratory was installed to provide data for research projects, initially dealing with the development of agriculture, in the departments of Botany and Archaeology.
Bi-decade samples of dendrochronologically matched Irish Oak, measured with a precision of ca ± 20 years, covering the period 200 to 4000 BC are presented. The data are compared with the published data of Suess, de Jong, and Mook to provide a general calibration of the 14C time scale for this period. Although the dendrochronologic sequences presented are not absolutely tied to present, the best fit (based on 14C evidence) of the Belfast data to absolute chronologies, the error and evidence associated with such positioning is given. The intervals chosen for analysis were 20 years, reducing slightly the resolution of short-term variations when compared to 10-year intervals, which are sometimes measured. However, this calibration would suffice for most scientific purposes and certainly for the calendrical conversion of 14C dates derived from archaeologic samples.
The dating equipment in the Palaeoecology Laboratory has remained essentially as described in Belfast I (this volume). Rewiring of the counter has increased the detection efficiency slightly. Background count corrected to 1606 mb is now 11.0 counts/min and the net count rate for 95% of the NBS oxalic acid standard is 56.0 counts/min. All charcoal samples have been pretreated in accordance with the schedule given in Belfast I.
The dating equipment and operating conditions remain essentially as previously described. All samples in this list have been counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 152 cm Hg at 20°C. The proportional counter has recently been re-wired, resulting in a lowering of the operating voltage. Electron-microscopic examination of the old counter wire showed considerable thickening due to the accumulation of fine dust particles. A filter is being installed in the filling line to minimize this effect. Pretreatments are as given in previous date lists unless otherwise stated.