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In evaluating the quality of table eggs and the developmental stages of embryonic eggs, spectroscopic techniques provide greater efficiency than traditional, time-consuming and laborious approaches. This review summarises recent developments in the spectroscopic analysis of table eggs, including the determination of the chemical composition (ratios of performance to standard deviation of 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, and protein in egg yolk and moisture and protein in egg albumen, respectively, have been reported). A Haugh unit detection accuracy RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) for quality of 6.29 was obtained by hyperspectral imaging) for table eggs and fertility detection (for white-shell eggs, fertility detection has been realised at a promising rate of 93.5%) and gender determination in hatching eggs. In conclusion, hyperspectral imaging generally outperforms visible or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy when evaluating both consumption eggs and hatching eggs, and near-infrared reflectance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibit a strong potential for gender determination prior to hatching. Scientists have attained a correct sexing rate above 90% at 3.5 d of egg incubation without removing the inner shell membrane. In the detection of blood-spot eggs or fertile eggs, eggshell colour proved to be a negative factor.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
Previously, we reported a phylogenetic study of 98 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from Hainan, China. Here, we update the B. pseudomallei strain library with 52 strains from newly identified cases dating from 2014 to 2017, analysed by multilocus sequence typing. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) were identified from the 52 cases, illustrating high genetic diversity; five of them (ST1480, ST1481, ST1482, ST1483 and ST1484) were novel. ST46, ST50 and ST58 predominated (34.6%) as was the case in the previous study (35.7%). An e-BURST map of the ST profiles of the two collections of isolates showed their genetic foundation to be largely unchanged. Neighbour-joining tree analysis was suggestive of a close phylogenetic relationship between the novel STs from this series and those first reported from Hainan (ST1105, ST1099, ST55 and ST1095). Moreover, the two novel STs (1481 and 1483) showed close similarity to ST58 which originated in Thailand indicating a close relationship between B. pseudomallei strains from both countries. The previously described allele profiles gmhD-36 and lepA-68 were found for the first time in our strain collections. Our study emphasises the importance of monitoring the epidemiological status and evolutionary trends of B. pseudomallei in China.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
As the energy spread of intense pulsed electron beams (IPEB) strongly influences the irradiation effects, it has been of great importance to characterize the IPEB energy spectrum. With the combination of Child–Langmuir law and Monte Carlo simulation, the IPEB energy spectrum has been obtained in this work by transformation from the accelerating voltage applied to the diode. To verify the accuracy of this simple algorithm, a magnetic spectrometer with an imaging plate was designed to test the IPEB energy spectrum. The measurement was completed with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode, the pulse duration, maximum electron energy, total beam current being 80 ns, 450 keV, and 1 kA, respectively. The results verified the reliability of the above analysis method for energy spectrum, which can avoid intercepting the beam, and at the same time significantly improved the energy resolution. Some calculation and experimental details are discussed in this paper.
The european X-ray observatory (EXOSAT), which was launched in 1983 and which finished operations in April 1986, has brought a rich harvest of results in the period 1984-1987, surveyed here. The EXOSAT payload consisted of three sets of instruments: two low energy imaging telescopes (LE:E<2 KeV), a medium-energy experiment (ME:E=l-50KeV) and a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC:E=2-20KeV). Over most of the energy range covered, EXOSAT was not more sensitive than its predecessor, the american EINSTEIN satellite. But the EINSTEIN satellite is far from having exhausted the treasures of the X-ray sky. And EXOSAT, thanks to its elliptical 90-hour orbit, had the extra advantage of being able to make long, continuous observations of interesting objects, lasting up to 72 hours. Thus, EXOSAT was very well suited for variability studies, and many of its most important findings are in this area. EXOSAT observations sample a vide range of astrophysical sources: X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables and active stars; supernova remnants and the interstellar medium; active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies. Among the highlights, let us mention:
In view of the broad range of topics covered by Commission 48 and the consequent inevitable overlap with other commissions, it is not feasible to produce a comprehensive self-contained report. The commission therefore restricts its report to a selected list of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, where up-to-date summaries of various topics can be found. Such a list is given below.
Meta-analyses support the efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia in western cultures. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and supportive therapy (ST) for patients with schizophrenia in China.
A multicentre randomized controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group trial enrolled a sample of 192 patients with schizophrenia. All patients were offered 15 sessions of either CBT or ST over 24 weeks and followed up for an additional 60 weeks. All measures used were standardized instruments with good reliability and validity. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptoms of schizophrenia. The Schedule for Assessing Insight (SAI) was used to assess patients’ insight and the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) was used to assess their social functioning.
Effect-size analysis showed that patients made rapid improvements in all symptoms, insight and social functioning as measured by the PANSS, SAI and PSP at 12 and 24 weeks and maintained these improvements over the course of the study to 84 weeks. Patients in the CBT group showed significantly greater and more durable improvement in PANSS total score (p = 0.045, between-group d = 0.48), positive symptoms (p = 0.018, between-group d = 0.42) and social functioning (p = 0.037, between-group d = 0.64), with significant differences emerging after completion of therapy.
Both CBT and ST combined with medication had benefits on psychopathology, insight and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. CBT was significantly more effective than ST on overall, positive symptoms and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia in the long term.
Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels within four ICRs (H19-ICR, IGF2-DMR, KvDMR, and NESPAS-ICR) in whole-blood genomic DNA from 128 monozygotic (MZ) and 128 dizygotic (DZ) human twin pairs. Our analyses revealed high individual variation and intra-domain covariation in methylation levels across CpGs and emphasized the interaction between epigenetic variation and the underlying genetic sequence in a parent-of-origin fashion. Here, we extend our analysis to conduct two genome-wide screenings of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying either intra-domain covariation or parent-of-origin-dependent association with methylation status at individual CpG sites located within ICRs. Although genome-wide significance was not surpassed due to sample size limitations, the most significantly associated SNPs found through multiple-trait genome-wide association (MQFAM) included the previously described rs10732516, which is located in the vicinity of the H19-ICR. Similarly, we identified an association between rs965808 and methylation status within the NESPAS-ICR. This SNP is positioned within an intronic region of the overlapping genes GNAS and GNAS-AS1, which are imprinted genes regulated by the NESPAS-ICR. Sixteen other SNPs located in regions apart from the analyzed regions displayed suggestive association with intra-domain methylation. Additionally, we identified 13 SNPs displaying parent-of-origin association with individual methylation sites through family-based association testing. In this exploratory study, we show the value and feasibility of using alternative GWAS approaches in the study of the interaction between epigenetic state and genetic sequence within imprinting regulatory domains. Despite the relatively small sample size, we identified a number of SNPs displaying suggestive association either in a domain-wide or in a parent-of-origin fashion. Nevertheless, these associations will require future experimental validation or replication in larger and independent samples.
Carbon nanotube-spinel lithium titanate (CNT-Li4Ti5O12) nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and higher-temperature calcinations with LiOH·H2O and TiO2 precursors in the presence of carbon nanotubes sources. The CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The particles exhibited a spinel cubic crystal phase and homogenous size distribution, with sizes around 50-70 nm. HAADF imaging confirmed that carbon content exists on the surface of the CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles with graphitic carbon coating of 3-5 nm thickness under 800oC in the Ar gas. The graphitic carbon phase was further confirmed with Raman spectroscopy analysis on powder samples. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated with galvanostatic discharge/charge tests, which showed that the initial discharge capacity is 172 mA·h/g at 0.1C. The nanoscale carbon layers uniformly coated the particles, and the interconnected carbon nanotube network is responsible for the improved charge rate capability and conductivity.
X-ray source IGR J17091-3624 was discovered by INTEGRAL observatory on 2003 April (Kuulkers 2003). A outburst was detected with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in late January 2011 (Krimm 2011). IGR J17091-3624 has a similar timing phenomena to microquasar GRS 1915+105(Belloni 2000; Altamirano 2011). We have analyzed the evolution of temporal and spectral characteristic of IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011 outburst. We find that (1) all the QPOs can be divided into two types, QPO-AB and QPO-C, (2) a small outburst tracks clockwise in the HID, (3) the relationship between hardness and disk color temperature forms a V-shape. Those results will give a strong constraint on the disk radiative process.
Lense-Thirring QPO model is a promising model to explain QPO phenomena (Ingram et al. (2009)). In this model the QPO results from Lense-Thirring precession of a optical translucent inner hot flow in a truncated disc geometry. Now we check this model with different types QPO (see (Belloni et al. (2011)) for a recent review) of black hole transient (BHT) GX 339-4 2010 outburst and suggest type C QPOs are mainly coincident with this model prediction while type B QPOs are not.
A phase field model is developed to investigate the formation of a solid electrolyte interface layer on the anode surface in lithium-ion batteries. Numerical results show that the growth of solid electrolyte interface exhibits power-law scaling with respect to time, and the growth rate depends on various factors such as temperature, diffusivity of electrons, and rates of electrochemical reactions.
The mechanism of continental growth of the Altaids is currently under debate between models invoking continuous subduction-accretion or punctuated accretion by closure of multiple ocean basins. We use the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite belt of the Beishan collage (southern Altaids) to constrain the earliest oceanic crust in the southern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. Five lithotectonic units were identified from S to N: the Huaniushan block, a sedimentary passive margin, the structurally incoherent Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite complex, a coherent sedimentary package and the Mazongshan island arc with granitic rocks. We present a structural analysis of the accretionary complex, which is composed of the incoherent ophiolitic melange and coherent sedimentary rocks, to work out the tectonic polarity. A new weighted mean 206Pb–238U age of 533 ± 1.7 Ma from a plagiogranite in the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite indicates that the ocean floor formed in early Cambrian time. Furthermore, we present new geochemical data to constrain the tectonic setting of the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite. The Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite was emplaced as a result of northward subduction of an oceanic plate beneath the Mazongshan island arc to the north in late Ordovician to early Silurian time. Together with data from the literature, our work demonstrates that multiple overlapping periods of accretion existed in the Palaeozoic in the northern and southern Altaids. Therefore, a model of multiple accretion by closure of several ocean basins is most viable.
Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.
A forwards induction policy is a type of greedy algorithm for Markov decision processes. It is straightforward to implement and is optimal for a large class of models, especially in stochastic resource allocation. In this paper we consider a model for the optimal allocation of resources in pre-clinical pharmaceutical research. We show that although they are not always strictly optimal, forwards induction policies perform well.
Four kinds of YBa2Cu2Ox (YBCO) superconducting powders with different particle sizes, shapes and different amounts of twins have been prepared in this work. The density, grain sizes, XRD of phase composition, configuration of twins of the ceramics have been investigated. The relation between the characteristics of YBCO powders and the microstructure, current density of the bulk materials are also discussed. In contrast to the YBCO powder prepared by solid state method, the YBCO powders through the improved coprecipitat ion approach have less impurities, smaller particle size and much more amounts of twins, as well as the sintered pellets show a higher density, an orthorhombic single phase, and moreover, the pellets have finer grain boundaries and well developed twins. As a result these samples exhibit current densities (about 1500 A/cm2) higher than those prepared by solid state method. Using BaOx instead of BaCO3 as the starting material, a more dense bulk YBCO ceramics with orthorhombic single phase and Jc (about 1,000 A/cm2) can have also been fabricated by solid state mat hod.
A modified pin-on-disc wear test technique and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) have been used to characterize the tribological and microstructural properties, respectively, of pure Fe implanted with N and Ar ions at high current densities. CEMS measurements were made before and after wear testing. For the lubricated, mild adhesive wear conditions used here, no evidence was found for iron-nitride dissolution or N atom migration. Disordering of γ'-Fe4N did occur as a result of the wear process. All Nimplanted surfaces were tribologically superior to the Ar-implanted surface and an extremely wear-resistant surface layer about 30–50 nm thick was produced with a dose of 8×1016 N atoms/cm2, at a dose rate of 100 μA/cm2. However, once this layer was worn away the wear rate returned sharply to that of unimplanted pure Fe. A high retained N dose has been observed even for a dose rate of 750 μA/cm2 during which the sample reached 280°C.