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Feelings of unrealistic body parts are related to deficits in human information processing and can occur as a part of schizophrenic disorders or phantom sensations after amputation (Koide, 2008; Goller, in press). Experimentally induced sensoric illusions like rubber hand illusion (RHI) (Botvinik & Cohen, 1998) may help to understand basic information processing and could give new ideas for treatment or the rehabilitation process.
Factors that are related to modulate sensoric illusions during movement may help to develop new intervention strategies in the rehabilitation of illusory symptoms.
The goal of this study was to review the factors affecting persistence of the RHI effect during movement.
We selected 13 keywords and searched in the following www.dimdi.de data bases (CCTR93, CDAR94, CDSR93, DAHTA, DAHTA, EA08, ED93, EM00, EM47, HG05, KP05, KR03, ME00, ME60, PI67, PY81, TV01, TVPP). A total of 160 articles were found. Duplicates were removed and the remaining list was filtered with the objective to explore the influence of active or passive movement during experimentally induced RHI. Then we identified six articles which experimentally examined persistence of RHI during active or passive movements.
Results indicate that RHI are maintained during active or passive movements due to visual and temporal congruency. During active movements the RHI is more stable or global than in passive movements or during tactile stimulation.
Factores like visual and temporal congruency are related to maintain RHI and are discussed in the rehabilitation of phantom sensations or symptomes of schizophrenic disorders.
Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions – particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost–benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation.