To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A Hamiltonian and action principle formalism for deriving three-dimensional gyroviscous magnetohydrodynamic models is presented. The uniqueness of the approach in constructing the gyroviscous tensor from first principles and its ability to explain the origin of the gyromap and the gyroviscous terms are highlighted. The procedure allows for the specification of free functions, which can be used to generate a wide range of gyroviscous models. Through the process of reduction, the noncanonical Hamiltonian bracket is obtained and briefly analysed.
Ambulatory healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur frequently in children and are associated with morbidity. Less is known about ambulatory HAI costs. This study estimated additional costs associated with pediatric ambulatory central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and surgical site infections (SSIs) following ambulatory surgery.
Retrospective case-control study.
Four academic medical centers.
Children aged 0–22 years seen between 2010 and 2015 and at risk for HAI as identified by electronic queries.
Chart review adjudicated HAIs. Charges were obtained for patients with HAIs and matched controls 30 days before HAI, on the day of, and 30 days after HAI. Charges were converted to costs and 2015 USD. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate the difference-in-differences of HAI case versus control costs in 2 models: unrecorded charge values considered missing and a sensitivity analysis with unrecorded charge considered $0.
Our search identified 177 patients with ambulatory CLABSIs, 53 with ambulatory CAUTIs, and 26 with SSIs following ambulatory surgery who were matched with 382, 110, and 75 controls, respectively. Additional cost associated with an ambulatory CLABSI was $5,684 (95% confidence interval [CI], $1,005–$10,362) and $6,502 (95% CI, $2,261–$10,744) in the 2 models; cost associated with a CAUTI was $6,660 (95% CI, $1,055, $12,145) and $2,661 (95% CI, −$431 to $5,753); cost associated with an SSI following ambulatory surgery at 1 institution only was $6,370 (95% CI, $4,022–$8,719).
Ambulatory HAI in pediatric patients are associated with significant additional costs. Further work is needed to reduce ambulatory HAIs.
Approach and avoidance theories of personality try to account for the systematic individual differences observed in reactions to classes of appetitive (“rewarding”) and aversive (“punishing”) stimuli. These individual differences reflect the operation of neuropsychological systems underpinning primary forms of motivation and emotion – accordingly, they are phylogenetically old, of evolutionary significance and of wide scale applicability (e.g., Krupić, Banai & Corr, 2018). The literature now has grown to include a family of approach and avoidance theories of personality. As detailed below, this literature is a culmination of research conducted over the last one hundred years, although its philosophical roots go back much further.
Research on personality psychology is making important contributions to psychological science and applied psychology. This second edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology offers a one-stop resource for scientific personality psychology. It summarizes cutting-edge personality research in all its forms, including genetics, psychometrics, social-cognitive psychology, and real-world expressions, with informative and lively chapters that also highlight some areas of controversy. The team of renowned international authors, led by two esteemed editors, ensures a wide range of theoretical perspectives. Each research area is discussed in terms of scientific foundations, main theories and findings, and future directions for research. The handbook also features advances in technology, such as molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging, as well as contemporary statistical approaches. An invaluable aid to understanding the central role played by personality in psychology, it will appeal to students, researchers, and practitioners in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and the social sciences.
In the Editors’ General Introduction to the first (2009) edition of this handbook, we acclaimed the success of the trait approach to personality (Matthews, Deary & Whiteman, 2009). Since that time, this approach has been boosted by growing consensus among researchers on the nature and measurement of the major traits, by remarkable advances in genetics and neuroscience, by increasing integration with various fields of mainstream psychology, and by applied utility – the maturity of the field is attested by the establishment of new journals, notably Personality Neuroscience (published by Cambridge University Press; see Corr & Mobbs, 2018). Such has been progress, trait researchers now pursue “normal science” (Kuhn, 1962): Common core assumptions are shared about the nature of personality and former vexatious positions are seen as far less relevant. There is a reasonable agreement on dimensional models, the importance of both biological and social factors, and the dependence of behavior on person × situation interaction. Within this consensus, a variety of still-burning questions remain (Fajkowska & Kreitler, 2018); for example, on the causal status of traits, sources of stability and change in personality over the lifespan, and the respective roles of trait and state factors in behavior.