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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
The aim of this review paper is to review the data on tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) as an antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal in poultry production. Tea tree exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 0.12 and 4 mg/ml. Its modes of action against Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (0.12 to 1.5 mg/ml), Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (0.12 to 1 mg/ml), Aspergillus fumigatus (1.78 mg/ml) and yeast, Candida albicans (0.05 to 0.5 mg/ml) have been investigated using a range of different methods. As an antimicrobial, tea tree has high antifungal, bacteriostatic and germicidal activity (e.g. a decrease of 73.8% in Candida sp.), because of its components such as terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole. Its bioactive compounds such as α-terpinene, α-terpinolene and γ-terpinene show high antioxidant activity when applied in concentrations of 100 and 200 µl/ml, while its essential oils demonstrated free radical scavenging activity of 60 to 80%. Tea trees insecticidal and acaricidal properties have been tested for tick control. The mortality of ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) have been recorded at levels over 60% and 80%, respectively, when used in concentrations of 0.15 to 0.30 mg/cm2 during in vitro testing, and in vivo, when sprayed in poultry houses. When tea tree was used in a form of essential oils as a dietary supplement in concentrations of 50 to 150 mg/kg in broiler chicken diets, a significant increase in daily weight (by around 7%) and decrease in morbidity and mortality were seen. Additionally, when applied in laying hen nutrition, a significant increase in daily egg production has been recorded. Tea tree essential oils when supplemented in poultry diets have high positive effects regarding productivity performance, but this requires further field experiments to clarify standardisation of the material and effective inclusion levels.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
We improve the convergence properties of the iterative scheme for solving unconstrained optimisation problems introduced in Petrovic et al. [‘Hybridization of accelerated gradient descent method’, Numer. Algorithms (2017), doi:10.1007/s11075-017-0460-4] by optimising the value of the initial step length parameter in the backtracking line search procedure. We prove the validity of the algorithm and illustrate its advantages by numerical experiments and comparisons.
We discuss the first available binary evolution models which include up-to-date rotational physics for both components, as well as angular momentum accretion and spin-orbit coupling. These models allow a self-consistent computation of the mass transfer efficiency during Roche-lobe overflow phases, and a determination of the transition from quasi-conservative to non-conservative evolution. Applications to massive binary systems lead to predictions for the spin rates of compact objects in binaries, and for the occurrence of gamma-ray bursts from collapsars in binaries. Rotational effects in accreting white dwarfs are found to stabilise the shell burning and decrease the carbon abundance in progenitor models for Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernovae, and to potentially avoid a detonation of the white dwarf within the sub-Chandrasekhar mass scenario.
The expected progress of diffraction limited imaging methods and the apparition of new super resolution techniques like differential speckle interferometry would justify the construction of a 15 m class telescope dedicated to diffraction limited observations in order to fulfil the potential of high angular resolution astrophysics of 15 m class instruments, but the construction of such a telescope is conceivable only if its cost is much smaller than the cost of the equivalent all purposes VLT. In this paper we suggest that a telescope with a long and thin rectangular primary ( 16 m X.4m say ) , able to rotate around the optical axis to ensure a full coverage of the frequency plane, would do almost as well than a conventional 16 m aperture telescope for high angular resolution astronomy for a cost substancially reduced. The performances of such a Large Slit Aperture Telescope ( LSAT ) for classical and differential speckle interferometry are examined and the releases on the optical and mechanical constraints allowed by the dedication of the instrument to speckle techniques are discussed.
The mechanism behind the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition (EN) for patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) is largely unknown. Adipokines, as mediators of metabolism and inflammation, may be a possible mechanism. The study aimed to investigate the effect of EN on adipokines early in the course of AP. Patients with AP were randomised to EN or nil-by-mouth (NBM). Blood samples were taken on the first 4 d of admission and adipokine concentrations for adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin and visfatin were determined by ELISA assays. A linear mixed model analysis was run to determine differences in adipokine concentrations between the two study groups. A total of thirty-two patients were included in the study. Omentin concentrations were significantly higher in patients who received EN compared with NBM across the first 4 d of admission (mean difference: 11·6 (95 % CI 1·0, 22·3) ng/ml; P = 0·033). Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in patients who received EN compared with NBM after adjusting for age, sex and BMI (mean difference: 2·3 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·5) ng/ml; P = 0·037). No significant difference in adiponectin, resistin or visfatin concentrations were observed between the two study groups. EN significantly increases omentin and leptin concentrations in AP. Future research should be directed towards understanding whether these adipokines are responsible for the therapeutic benefits of EN.
The application of natural fertilizer mixtures that improve nutrient retention ability of soils has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In addition to rock phosphate (RP), the basic components of these mixtures are zeolites modified with selected cations, such as the ammonium ion. The NH4-zeolite serves as a carrier of nutrients as well as a soil conditioner, and it promotes the RP dissolution in all soil types. The purpose of the present work was to prepare costeffective NH4-zeolite supplement, using 32 full factorial experimental designs, with concentration of modifier and processing time as variables. Saturation processes were carried out on two types of natural zeolites, K- clinoptilolite (K-Cp) and Ca-clinoptilolite (Ca-Cp). The Response Surface Method (RSM) was applied for evaluation of cation exchange, suggesting an effective NH4+ modification of natural zeolite at lower quantities of modifier than commonly found in other studies on the topic. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), differences between samples relative to the process variables were clearly outlined and correlated with concentrations of the exchanged cations. The best results were obtained for the K-Cp type modified with 1.5 M solution of ammonium sulfate (at a Cp/NH4+ stochiometric ratio 1:7.5) for all three processing intervals. By optimizing the modification process parameters, an experimental design of partially saturated NH4-Cp supplement that has the potential to supply all major plant nutrients was proposed.
Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are ,  and . They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for  and  orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the  (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the  and  domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the  domain.
The number of experiments on-board Lomonosov spacecraft are preparing now at SINP MSU in
co-operation with other organisations. The main idea of Lomonosov mission is to study
extreme astrophysical phenomena, such as cosmic gamma-ray bursts and ultra-high energy
cosmic rays. These phenomena connect with processes occurred in very distant astrophysical
objects of the Early Universe and give us information about first stages of Universe
evolution. Thus, the Lomonosov mission scientific equipment includes several instruments
for gamma-ray burst observation in optics, ultra-violet, X-rays and gamma-rays and the
wide aperture telescope for ultra-high energy particle study by detection of ionisation
light along its tracks in the atmosphere. The main parameters and a brief description of
these instruments are presented.
We report the results of a successful 7-hour 1.4 GHz Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) experiment using two new stations, ASKAP-29 located in Western Australia and WARK12M located on the North Island of New Zealand. This was the first geodetic VLBI observing session with the participation of these new stations. We have determined the positions of ASKAP-29 and WARK12M. Random errors on position estimates are 150–200 mm for the vertical component and 40–50 mm for the horizontal component. Systematic errors caused by the unmodeled ionosphere path delay may reach 1.3 m for the vertical component.
Cerianite-(Ce), ideally CeO2, occurs as rounded grains up to 5 μm across in a block of highly altered calcite carbonatite lava from the Kerimasi volcano, and as euhedral crystals up to 200 μm across in carbonatite-derived eluvial deposits in the Kisete and Loluni explosion craters in the Gregory Rift, northern Tanzania. X-ray powder diffraction data (a = 5.434(5) Å) and Raman spectroscopy (minor vibration modes at 184 and 571 cm—1 in addition to a strong signal at 449 cm—1) suggest the presence of essential amounts of large cations and oxygen vacancies in the Kisete material. Microprobe analyses reveal that the mineral contains both light and heavy trivalent rare earth elements (REE) (7.9-15.5 wt.% LREE2O3 and 4.9-9.7 wt.% HREE2O3), and that it is enriched in yttrium (7.1 — 14.5 wt.% Y2O3) and fluorine (2.2—3.5 wt.%). Single-crystal structure refinement of the mineral confirms a fluorite-type structure with a cation—anion distance of 2.3471(6) Å. The cerianite-(Ce) is considered to be a late-stage secondary mineral in the carbonatitic rocks.
We have investigated the mechanical behavior of the following single-phase polycrystalline alloys with the MoSi2 body-center tetragonal structure: MoSi2 alloyed with ∼2.5 at.% Re, MoSi2 alloyed with 2 at.% Al, MoSi2 alloyed with 1 at.% Nb, and MoSi2 alloyed with 1 at.% Re and 2 at.% Al. Several anomalies in the mechanical behavior of alloyed materials were observed. For example, (i) addition of only ∼2.5 at. % Re results in an order of magnitude increase in compressive strength at 1600 °C, (ii) additions of Nb and Al cause solution softening at near-ambient temperatures, and (iii) quaternary MoSi2-Re-Al alloys show strengthening at elevated temperatures and reduction in flow stress with enhanced plasticity at near-ambient temperatures in compression. The mechanisms of anomalous solution hardening and softening are discussed.
The dielectric response of La- and Dy- doped BiFeO3 thin films to electric- and magnetic fields was measured at microwave frequencies (up to 12GHz) in a temperature range from 25 °C to 300 °C. Interesting phenomena were observed. Significant oscillations in the C(f) characteristic which were unaffected by the electric field or by elevated temperature but which were dampened by a magnetic field. We also observed ‘N’-type I-V characteristics. A possible explanation for this mesoscopic response is the presence of structural features that cause resonance (e.g. grains, grain-boundaries, domains, domain walls etc), with a contribution strong enough to be averaged by the system. The exact origin of these features is unknown at present.
A photocurrent directed opposite to ferroelectric (FE) polarization is observed in short-circuit thin-film polycrystalline Pt/PZT/Ir structures. The direction and magnitude of photocurrent are defined by the sign and magnitude of the FE polarization. A model based on a photovoltaic effect with characteristics determined by polarization of PZT grains is proposed. The model considers the field interaction of FE polarization charge with the charge carriers in intergranular PbO channel. Thin-film FE capacitor is considered as a photosensitive heterogeneous medium, where the conduction of PbO channels along PZT grain boundaries is controlled by FE polarization.
The B2 ordering and phase stability of three ordered intermetallic alloys with compositions (in at.%) of Nb-15Al-10Ti (10Ti alloy), Nb-15A1-40Ti (40Ti alloy), and Nb-15Al-25Ti (25Ti alloy) have been studied. All three alloys have the B2 crystal structure in the as-cast form. The Atom Location by Channeling Enhanced Microanalysis (ALCHEMI) technique has been employed to assess the site occupancy of these B2 alloys. The results of site occupancy are represented as Ordering Tie Lines on a ternary composition diagram. Various second phases were observed in heat treated samples. An ω-type phase was found in the 1OTi alloy in samples heat treated for 10 minutes and 4 hours at 900°C. At 800°C, orthorhombic phase was found in the 40Ti alloy while a three phase microstructure of o-phase/B2/A15 was observed in both the 10Ti and 25Ti alloys. Annealing at 1100°C leads to the dissolution of the o-phase and the presence of A15 phase in the 10Ti and 25Ti alloys, but no other phase in the 40Ti alloy. The observed phase equilibria in these alloys are compared with those in the literature.