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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the opioid drug requirements amongst those individuals with high levels of catecholamines in blood and acute post-procedural pain, by ICD9/10 codes (experimental) to those with normal levels of catecholamines and acute post-procedural pain (AP-PP) only (controls) METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In collaboration with both the Informatics and the Biostatistics Departments at CTSI and under the auspices of the IRB at the University of Rochester, we completed the collection of ~8,000 electronic health records(EHRs) of adults 18 years and older with surgical appointments at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH), who met inclusion criteria, from January 2006 to September 2019 and received Fentanyl therapy for AP-PP management. Subjects were categorized in a two-arm-matched case-control fashion. A ratio of 1(Experimental):1(Control) was utilized. Analytic comparisons were completed using normal distribution statistical methods with p >0.1 for significance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After removal of duplicates and exclusion of EHRs, a total of 17 subjects met inclusion criteria for the experimental group. We matched controls (n = 17) with experimental subjects for age, gender and surgical procedure for accurately compare opioid requirements in the postoperative recovery. Mean age of subjects was 69(+/-10.1235) years old. Most of subjects were females (70%). Mean Fentanyl requirement was significantly different in the experimental group 466.17(625.621)mcg compared to 215.58(353.323)mcg in the controls (p value 0.07832) DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: It is suggested that healthy individuals with genetic variations in pain pathways including; the COMT and MAOA rendered individuals with higher levels of catecholamines in the body driving abnormal responses to pain sensitivity. We emulated this genetic variation for clinical purposes using ICD10/9 codes of those with conditions related to higher catecholamine levels in the body. Based on our preliminary results, we suggest that COMT and MAOA genetic variations could impact opioid drug use and the current opioid dependency and epidemics in the U.S. This study will address remarkable questions and identify strategies about this topic.
The COVID-19 outbreak could be considered as an uncontrollable stressful life event. Lockdown measures have provoked a disruption of daily life with a great impact over older adults’ health and well-being. Nevertheless, eudaimonic well‐being plays a protective role in confronting adverse circumstances, such as the COVID-19 situation. This study aims to assess the association between age and psychological well-being (personal growth and purpose in life). Young–old (60–70 years) and old–old (71–80 years) community-dwelling Spaniards (N = 878) completed a survey and reported on their sociodemographic characteristics and their levels of health, COVID-19 stress-related, appraisal, and personal resources. Old–old did not evidence poorer psychological well-being than young–old. Age has only a negative impact on personal growth. The results also suggest that the nature of the COVID-19 impact (except for the loss of a loved one) may not be as relevant for the older adults’ well-being as their appraisals and personal resources for managing COVID-related problems. In addition, these results suggest that some sociodemographic and health-related variables have an impact on older adults’ well-being. Thus, perceived-health, family functioning, resilience, gratitude, and acceptance had significant associations with both personal growth and purpose in life. Efforts to address older adults’ psychological well-being focusing on older adults’ personal resources should be considered.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Although dried orange pulp (DOP) may conveniently replace cereals in ruminant diets, few studies have considered similar diet substitution for goats. We hypothesised that DOP could replace cereal-based concentrate in goat diets without detrimental effects on growth performance and carcass quality of suckling kids and milk performance and blood biochemical parameters of dams in early lactation. We also hypothesised that DOP substitution may increase the levels of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds and vitamin E, in milk and improve its total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Therefore, 44 primiparous Payoya dairy goats were allocated to three experimental groups, each fed a different diet: control (CD, n = 14) based on a commercial concentrate with alfalfa hay as forage; and DOP40 (n = 16) in which 40% and DOP80 (n = 14) in which 80% of the cereal in the concentrate were replaced by DOP. The experiment lasted from the final month of pregnancy to 55 days postpartum. The DOP diets did not affect suckling kids’ carcass quality, but at 28 days, led to improvement in live weight (LW) and average daily gain (ADG) from birth, although no differences were found between DOP40 and DOP80 (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, LW at 28 days was 8.00, 8.58 and 8.34 kg and ADG was 184, 199 and 195 g/day, respectively). Diet had no significant effect on milk yield (average daily milk yield and total yield at 55 days were 1.66 l/day and 90.6 l, respectively) and commercial and fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol, total phenolic compound (TPC) and TAC concentration in milk increased with substitution of cereals by DOP (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, concentration of α-tocopherol was 21.7, 32.8 and 42.3 μg/100 g, TPCs was 63.5, 84.1 and 102 mg gallic acid equivalents/l, and TAC was 6.63, 11.1 and 12.8 μmol Trolox equivalents/ml, respectively). Every plasma biochemistry parameter considered was within reference values for healthy goats; therefore, no pathological effect was detected for these variables due to dietary treatment. However, DOP diets caused a reduction in plasmatic creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, implying reduced oxidative damage to muscles. In conclusion, DOP may be an interesting alternative to cereals in early lactation goat diets for increasing farmers’ income and the healthy antioxidant capacity of milk.
To analyse the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the utilization of health care resources and corresponding costs.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics selected at random and weighted by geographical density of population. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and health care resources and corresponding costs were recorded during a 6-month period.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV criteria group (DG) and 1,264 in broad criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Type of treatments prescribed at psychiatric clinics during the study were similar in frequency; anti-depressives (77.0% in DG vs. 75.3% in BG, ns), benzodiazepines (71.5% vs. 67.2% respectively, ns), and anti-convulsants (72.1% vs. 67.0% respectively, ns). Health care resources utilization were statistically reduced to a similar extent in both groups as a consequences of treatments yielding to a cost-of-illness in the 6-month period of 1,196 (1,158) and 1,112 (874), respectively; p=0.304.
In a large sample of subjects, broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that would not be associated necessarily to an increase in health care resources utilization or costs to the National Health System.
In spite that the patients with long-acting neuropletics(LAN)can drop out and have relapses,its use allows a more long-lasting time and more stable plasmatic concentrations that supply clinical and neurocognitive advantages.
To analyze the symptomatology and neurocognitive differences(P300)among the patients that relapse after withdrawing from the previous treatment with oral antipsychotic as regards those treated with LAN.
Material and methods
34 schizophrenic patients with a history of at least one admission in a acute adult psychiatric ward.All the patients have been assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with potential auditory evocations(wave P300).
Clinical profile: 73.5% suffers from paranoid schizophrenia.Only 32.4% shows antipsychotic monotherapy;the 61.8% have been prescribed with long-acting Risperidone.
PANSS: The patients who had at least two admissions and who in the previous admission received long-acting Risperidone,showed a PANSS-N punctuation lower than the rest of the patients(21.64±4.6 vs. 25.4±3.2)at the end of the last admission(p=0.037).The same takes place with PANSS-PG at the end of the last admission(30.71 ± 3.8 vs. 3.61 ± 5.89(p=0.012).
P300: The latency measures of P300 are lower in those patients who in the previous admission received a long-acting Risperidone treatment(average of 314±34.65msec vs. 344.67±24.67msec),being the differences statistically relevant(p=0.012).The ranges are higher in the patients treated with long-acting Risperidone in the previous admission(average 5.3 ± 2.44vs.5±2.64 μV),though the differences are not statistically relevant.
At the end of the last admission,the patients who in the previous admission received long-acting Risperidone,showed a PANSS-N,a PANSS-PG and a latency of P300 lower than the rest of the patients but the range of P300 was higher.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) has been suggested to improve depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We now report preliminary results of DBS and one-year follow up in six patients.
Six patients with severe TRD (Thase Resistance Index>4) underwent DBS surgery and subsequent monthly assessments. DBS response was defined as ≥50% reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) or HDRS< 8 (remission). Electrodes location was assessed in each patient by means of pre/post-DBS MRIs co-registration.
DBS led to early and late reductions of average HDRS (from 22.5 to 9.8 and 6.25 respectively, see Figure 1 for evolution of HDRS mean scores). One month after surgery 16.7% of patients met criteria for response and for remission. Three months after response rates increased to 66.7% while remission rates were maintained. At six months, 66.7% of patients were responders. After 9 months, response rates arose up to 83.4% and these rates were largely maintained at 12 months. Remission rates showed similar growth over follow-up. No substantial differences were observed in electrodes location, and they were not found to be related to response or remission rates. The number of serious adverse effects was small with no patient experiencing permanent deficits.
This study suggests that DBS is relatively safe and provides significant improvement in patients with TRD. Improvement on average seems to be linearly progressive and, once melioration is achieved, it is maintained for at least one year. The procedure is well tolerated.
To evaluate the effect of pregabalin as a tapering therapy over the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program.
This was a secondary analysis of a 12-week, prospective, and observational study carried out in patients aged 18 years or over, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence without other major psychiatry disorder. Evaluations included the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impression scale, and the MOS-Sleep Scale. Changes from baseline to the endpoint in the different scales’ scores as well as correlations of these changes with those of the MOS-Sleep scores were calculated.
282 patients met the criteria for analysis. Mean pregabalin dose was 315 (166) mg/day at end-of-trial. We observed a significant and clinically relevant improvement in sleep outcomes at the study endpoint as measured with the MOS-Sleep Summary Index, that was reduced from 55.8 (18.9) pts at baseline to 25.1 (18.0) pts at week 12 (55% reduction), as well as with the six dimensions of the MOS-Sleep Scale. Moderate correlations were observed between Summary Index and sleep domains with improvements in the anxiety symptoms and in the disease severity as well. Also, sleep ameliorations were observed in the 52% successfully benzodiazepines withdrawals but, although to a lesser extent, in the remaining failures as well.
Pregabalin treatment improves subjective sleep quality in patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program and this effect appears partly independent of the improvement of anxiety or withdrawal symptoms.
To determine the clinical profile of patients diagnosed of delusional disorder (DD) admitted to a psychiatric ward.
Retrospective chart review of inpatients with diagnoses of delusional disorder (DD) according ICD-10 criteria admitted to a psychiatric ward (Hospital de Conxo, Santiago de Compostela) between January 1998 and December 2008. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected, with special attention to comorbidity and presumed risk factors.
The sample consisted in 56 inpatients (30 women, mean age 54 ± 11). 64.3% were single including never married (33.9%), divorced, separated and widowed and 33.9% lived alone. The most frequent type of DD was persecutory (67%) followed by mixed type (16%). 16.1% presented hallucinations (most frequent auditory). In comparison with the other types, patients with persecutory delusions usually lived alone (p < 0.05). Most frequent comorbidities were substance abuse and affective disorders. Familiar background of psychoses was recorded in 21.4% and history of emigration in 12.5%. 5.4% suffered deafness. During the period studied 53.6% were admitted two or more times. After the most recent admission 32.1% were on depot antipsychotic.
In concordance with other previous reports, DD seemed to be more prevalent in women in middle or late adulthood and persecutory were the most frequent delusions. In our sample, most patients were not married and high prevalence of family antecedents of psychoses was found. It could be related with its hospital origin; then it could be hypothesized living alone and having familiar background of psychoses to be risk factors of hospitalization.
In our work we propose to use the adult developmental eye movement test (A-DEM) of Gene Sampedro et al, for the study of saccadic movements in schizophrenia.
To study the importance of saccades and attention in a sample of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in a Unit of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Sample formed by 30 people.15 patients and 15 controls. 15 patients were corresponding to all the schizophrenic patients admitted in January, 2009 in a Unit of Psycosocial Rehabilitation of Conxo's Psychiatric Hospital. The 15 of the group control were selected of random form between sanitary personnel without psychiatric pathology, homogenizing the variables chronological age and sex with regard to the group of investigation.
The A-DEM vertical half to 44.37 seconds in the control group versus 59.54 seconds in the sample of patients. Regarding the results of the horizontal A-DEM obtained an average score of 47.07 seconds compared to control group obtained 60.68 seconds in the group of patients. The schizophrenic patients are characterized for having an attention diminished in 87 %, opposite to 47 % of the group control that they have a normal attention and 40 % increased. These differences of saccadic movements and of the attention are statistically significant.
Schizophrenic patients have few saccades both horizontally and vertically slower than normal people.
Schizophrenic patients show a marked deficit of attention to the normal population.
To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of newly diagnosed patients; one group according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period.
3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and most patients (about 80%), even newly diagnosed were exposed previously to pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) of their anxiety symptoms. As a result of treatment at psychiatric clinics, the percentage of patients without symptoms of anxiety as per HAM-A scale were 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p=0.261). Similarly, responder rate (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were, respectively, 59.7% and 67.7% (p=0.103). Improvement in MADRS scores were observed in both group to a similar extent; 12.1 and 12.5 points average reduction respectively (p=0.264).
Broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that will benefit patients by starting appropriate treatment sooner.
One of the most important prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is the number of hospitalizations they need during their life. In this work we describe risk factors which determinate psychotic relapse.
Retrospective review of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who needed hospitalization during the year 2008 using Hospital Ramon Cajal's history software. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
- Socio-demographic: We collected a total of 57 patients, 60% were men and 77,2% were single who lived with their families. 52,8% only had Primary education and 14% had been to University. 38,6% were pensioner and 12,3% workers.
- Risk factors: 54,4% had abandoned their medication, 7% had had recent modifications in their medication, and 35,1% received long acting antipsychotic. 42,1% were identified as substance users.
- 40,4% had been diagnosed with schizophrenia more than three years ago; 57,9% had had less than 3 previous hospitalizations, and 54,4% need hospitalization the previous year.
Male under 30 years old have more risk of needing more hospitalizations. The main risk factor for suffering new psychotic episodes is the medication nonadherence, modifying medication only causes new episodes in few patients. Patients receiving long-acting antipsychotic agents suffer less psychotic relapse. Substance abuse among schizophrenia patients is a major complicating factor since almost half of the hospitalizations are related to it.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) cannot always be effective for Treatment Resistant Depression. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a procedure that involves the direct implantation of stimulation electrodes in localized brain regions with the aim of modulating local and connected abnormal activity, has recently been gaining momentum as an alternative treatment modality for the most severe TRD patients. However, there is minimal experience with ECT in patients who have undergone DBS procedures.
We present two cases of patients who remitted from TRD after SCG-DBS, and some months after they suffered a relapse that was treated with ECT.
Before DBS intervention, ECT was not capable to sustain response more than two weeks beyond and was even bad tolerated by these patients. DBS was effective for both patients until a severe relapse occurred (after 4 and 14 months, respectively). Optimization of medication did not elicit response, given the seriousness of symptoms and their previous treatment resistance. Therefore, neurostimulator was turned off in order to administer ECT to both patients. After usual series of sessions set at corresponding parameters over 3 weeks, using bitemporal electrode placement, the episode remitted. Deep brain stimulator was turned on again, and they were in remission until the present moment.
The use of ECT proved to be effective without adverse effects to the patients or to the DBS hardware. The modulation of SCG activity and its downstream targets might also serve as a trigger for the therapeutic effect of formerly useful or even never-effective antidepressant strategies.
To analyse the effect of Pregabalin (PGB) on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with refractory-severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and severe concomitant depressive disorder.
Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics to ascertain the impact of broadening GAD criteria. Men and women above 18 years, with GAD (DSM-IV criteria), PGB naïve and refractory to a previous course of benzodiazepines and/or anti-depressive drugs (minimum 3 months) and severe symptoms of anxiety (HAM-A ≥ 24) and depression (MADRS ≥ 35) were included. Changes in HAM-A and MADRS were assessed after 6 months of receiving PGB as per psychiatrist's judgement.
159 patients [69.2% women, 45.9 (12.6) years] fulfilled criteria for analysis. Respectively, 92% and 90% of subjects were previously exposed to benzodiazepines and anti-depressives before adding PGB [mean dose: 223.1 (126.3) mg/day]. PGB therapy reduced both anxiety and depressive baseline symptoms by a mean of, respectively in HAM-A and MADRS scales, 57.9% (from 35.5±5.8 to 14.8±9.4; p< 0.001, effect size: 3.57) and 58.1% (from 39.4±4.3 to 16.5±10.3; p< 0.001, effect size: 5.33). As a result, the percentages of patients without symptoms of both anxiety and depression were 34.4% and 40.9%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p< 0.001 in all cases). Similarly, responder rates (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were 63.1% and 62.9%.
Despite limitations, Pregabalin therapy had a meaningful and significant effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with severe refractory GAD and concomitant severe depressive disorder.
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drinking, alcohol seeking, loss of control over alcohol consumption, and impaired social and occupational functioning. Treatment of Alcohol Dependence (AD) comprises two steps, detoxification and relapse prevention (RP). Traditionally, long half-life benzodiazepines have been the most widely used agents for alcohol detoxification. On the other hand, disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are the three drugs that have been approved for relapse prevention. In the last decades, nevertheless, there is a growing interest in the use of anticonvulsant drugs in the management of both, detoxification and relapse prevention of alcohol.
To review the different pharmacological strategies in which an anticonvulsant was used in the management of AD.
We searched in MEDLINE and in the Cochrane Database System Review, selecting all studies from 1980 until present, in which a pharmacological intervention with anticonvulsant agents was made for alcohol detoxification or RP.
The most tested anticonvulsant drugs are the classical Carbamazepine and Valproate. Both have demonstrated to be efficacious in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome and RP. However, the use of these agents has been limited by their hepatic and hematologic toxicity. Novel anticonvulsants such as Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Topiramate, Oxcarbazepine and Zonisamide have also been found to be effective, with the advantage of rapid onset of action, lower toxicity and fewer side effects.
Anticonvulsants are efficacious and safe agents in the management of AD. Further randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are warranted to increase the evidence of the use of these agents.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.