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The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
Relationship quality (RQ) in dyads of persons with dementia and their family carers is important both as a clinical outcome and as a determinant of health and quality of life. In previous work we studied RQ using baseline data of a large-scale European longitudinal study on timely access to and use of community formal services in dementia (EU-JPND Acticare). We concluded that neuropsychiatric symptoms and carer stress contributed to discrepancies in RQ ratings within the dyad, which were less favourable when reported by family carers. This and other associations (e.g. between carer-rated RQ and sense of coherence) were cautiously interpreted, in the context of a cross-sectional analysis.
To analyse how carer-reported RQ varies over time and to examine its most important influencing factors.
We present preliminary longitudinal analyses from the Actifcare cohort study of 451 community-dwelling persons with dementia and their primary carers in eight European countries (12-month follow-up). Comprehensive assessments included the Positive Affect Index (PAI) to assess RQ, persons with dementia’s neuropsychiatric symptoms, persons with dementia and carers’ unmet needs, carers’ anxiety and depression, social support, sense of coherence and stress.
Carers’ mean PAI scores decreased over the 12 -month period. The person with dementia neuropsychiatric symptoms and unmet needs, and carers’ perceived social support were significant predictors of carers’ RQ change.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
We analysed carer-reported RQ variation over time and predictors in a large European sample of persons with dementia and their family carers. As expected, RQ decreased over the oneyear follow-up period as the disease progressed. Its main predictors in this sample (neuropsychiatric symptoms and the person’s unmet needs, together with carers’ social support) can all influence the impact that caregiving has on the carer and on how time and energy-consuming caregiving is. The role of increased clinical symptoms (also affecting communication difficulties), together with carers’ exhaustion, must be equated. Overall, these results may help us to tailor interventions addressing RQ and potentially improve dementia outcomes.
To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA.
Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.
São Paulo, Brazil; and Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.
Adolescents (12–16 years) living in São Paulo (n 189) and USA (n 787).
ISA-Nutrition individuals with EBW (v. without) had marginally lower (unhealthier) scores for whole grains using BHEI-R and sugary beverages using AHEI. SOL-Youth individuals with EBW had lower scores of nuts/legumes using AHEI, and Na using BHEI-R, but higher scores of whole grains and dairy using BHEI-R. In ISA-Nutrition, BHEI-R was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·87; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·95) and CVDR (OR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In SOL-Youth, AHEI was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99).
Dietary improvements should be made by adolescents in both USA and Brazil. Healthier diet quality as measured with the country-specific index was associated with lower odds of EBW in Brazilian and USA-Hispanic/Latino adolescents, and with lower CVDR in Brazilian adolescents.
To provide comprehensive information on the epidemiology and burden of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation (RSVH) in preterm infants, a pooled analysis was undertaken of seven multicentre, prospective, observational studies from across the Northern Hemisphere (2000–2014). Data from all 320–356 weeks' gestational age (wGA) infants without comorbidity were analysed. RSVH occurred in 534/14 504 (3.7%) infants; equating to a rate of 5.65 per 100 patient-seasons, with the rate in individual wGA groups dependent upon exposure time (P = 0.032). Most RSVHs (60.1%) occurred in December–January. Median age at RSVH was 88 days (interquartile range (IQR): 54–159). Respiratory support was required by 82.0% of infants: oxygen in 70.4% (median 4 (IQR: 2–6) days); non-invasive ventilation in 19.3% (median 3 (IQR: 2–5) days); and mechanical ventilation in 10.2% (median 5 (IQR: 3–7) days). Intensive care unit admission was required by 17.9% of infants (median 6 days (IQR: 2–8) days). Median overall hospital length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR: 3–8) days. Hospital resource use was similar across wGA groups except for overall LOS, which was shortest in those born 35 wGA (median 3 vs. 4–6 days for 32–34 wGA; P < 0.001). Strategies to reduce the burden of RSVH in otherwise healthy 32–35 wGA infants are indicated.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with mortality and survival of COVID-19 cases in a state of the Brazilian Northeast. It is a historical cohort with a secondary database of 2070 people that presented flu-like symptoms, sought health assistance in the state and tested positive to COVID-19 until 14 April 2020, only moderate and severe cases were hospitalised. The main outcome was death as a binary variable (yes/no). It also investigated the main factors related to mortality and survival of the disease. Time since the beginning of symptoms until death/end of the survey (14 April 2020) was the time variable of this study. Mortality was analysed by robust Poisson regression, and survival by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression. From the 2070 people that tested positive to COVID-19, 131 (6.3%) died and 1939 (93.7%) survived, the overall survival probability was 87.7% from the 24th day of infection. Mortality was enhanced by the variables: elderly (HR 3.6; 95% CI 2.3–5.8; P < 0.001), neurological diseases (HR 3.9; 95% CI 1.9–7.8; P < 0.001), pneumopathies (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4–4.7; P < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (HR 8.9; 95% CI 5.4–14.5; P < 0.001). In conclusion, mortality by COVID-19 in Ceará is similar to countries with a large number of cases of the disease, although deaths occur later. Elderly people and comorbidities presented a greater risk of death.
Engineering work is mostly done in 3D CAD software throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products. Physics-Based Virtual Prototypes are very valuable addition on Computer Aided Engineering enabling product development simulators, training simulators and digital twin concept in product lift-cycle process. In this work, we present a framework, how such virtual prototypes can be developed from 3D CAD models with meaningful effort.
Remarkable increases in the production of dairy animals have negatively impacted their tolerance to heat stress (HS). The evaluation of the effect of HS on milk yield is based on the direct impact of HS on performance. However, in practical terms, HS also exerts its influence during gestation (indirect effect). The main purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to HS during the last 60 days of gestation (THI_g) and also the HS postpartum (THI_m) over first lactation milk production of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A total of 389 127 test day milk yield (TD) records from 1572 first lactation Holstein cows born in Brazil (daughters of 1248 dams and 70 sires) and the corresponding temperature–humidity index (THI) obtained between December 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed using different random regression models. Cows in the cold environment (THI_g = 64 to 73) during the last 60 days of gestation produced more milk than those cows in a hot environment (THI_g = 74 to 84), particularly during the first 150 days of lactation (DIM). The heritabilities (h2) of TD were similar throughout DIM for cows in THI_g hot (0.11 to 0.20) or (0.10 to 0.22), while the genetic correlations (rg) for TD between these two environments ranged from 0.11 to 0.52 along the first 250 DIM. The h2 estimates for TD across THI_m were similar for cows in THI_g hot (0.07 to 0.25) and THI_g cold (0.08 to 0.19). The rg estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.42 along THI_m between TD of cows in cold and hot THI_g. The results were consistent in demonstrating the existence of an additional source of G × E for TD due to THI_g and THI_m. The present study is probably the first to provide evidence of this source of G × E; further research is needed because of its importance when the breeding objective is to select animals that are more tolerant to HS.
Detrital zircon populations from six samples of upper Triassic sandstone (Algarve Basin) were analysed, yielding mostly Precambrian ages. zircon age populations of the Triassic sandstone sampled from the western and central sectors of the basin are distinct, suggesting local recycling and/or lateral changes in their sources. Our findings and the available detrital zircon ages from the Palaeozoic terranes of SW Iberia, Nova Scotia and NW Morocco were jointly examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and multidimensional scaling diagrams. The obtained results enable direct discrimination of competing Laurussian-type and Gondwanan-type sediment sources, involving recycling and mixing relationships. The detrital zircon populations of the Algarve Triassic sandstone are very different from those of the lower–upper Carboniferous Mértola and Mira formations (South Portuguese Zone), upper Devonian – lower Carboniferous Horta da Torre, Represa and Santa Iria formations (Pulo do Lobo Zone), and the late Carboniferous Santa Susana and early Permian Viar basins, which are ruled out as potential sources. The detrital zircon populations of Triassic sandstone from the central sector and those from the Ossa–Morena Zone Ediacaran–Cambrian siliciclastic rocks, upper Devonian – Carboniferous Ronquillo, Tercenas, Phyllite-Quartzite and Brejeira formations (South Portuguese Zone), and Frasnian siliciclastic rocks of the Pulo do Lobo Zone are not statistically distinguishable. Thus, sedimentation in the central sector was influenced by Gondwanan- and Laurussian-type putative sources exposed in SW Iberia, in contrast to the western sector, where Meguma Terrane and Sehoul Block Cambrian siliciclastic rocks allegedly constituted the main (Laurussian-type) sources. These findings provide insights into the denudation of distinctive source terranes distributed along the late Palaeozoic suture zone that juxtaposed the Laurussian and Gondwanan margins.
Clinical history, neuroimaging and lab investigations, and neuropsychological assessments.
A 66-year-old married man was admitted to an Old Age psychiatric ward presenting with a two-year history of desinhibited behaviour, hetero-aggression and a gradual loss of his ability cope with activities of daily living. His Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 20/30 on admission. The symptoms described above raised the working diagnosis of a frontotemporal dementia. Computerized axial tomography was normal. Laboratory and additional examinations were performed. Serological tests for syphilis were positive for both the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum hemaglutination test (TPHA). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed a positive VDRL (cytology: 2 erythrocytes/μl, 30 leucocytes/μl with 24 mononuclear cells/ μl). Additional tests including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test were negative. Based on these findings the patient was treated for neurosyphilis according to the IUSTI 2008 European Guidelines on the management of Syphilis: Benzyl penicillin 18 million units i.v. daily, as 3 million units every four hours during 21 days. Two months later, he scored 28/30 at the MMSE but showing only slight improvement at the executive function battery.
Neurosyphilis remains a differential diagnosis for a wide variety of psychiatric syndromes, including dementia. However, the incidence of neurosyphilis presenting initially with frontotemporal impairment is unclear. High-risk groups such as patients with neuropsychiatric diseases should be routinely screened with serological tests in order to prevent morbidity and help to eliminate syphilis.
There were 16,482 administrations of Electro-convulsive Therapy (ECT) to 2835 individuals in England between January-March 1999. Controversy still surrounds the safety, ethics and necessity of ECT with some patients reporting severe adverse effects and feeling particularly strongly about it being administered without their consent. NICE guidelines along with the ECT accreditation service (ECTAS) sought to address these concerns and raise standards for ECT in UK.
Aims and Objective
To identify any barriers to compliance with NICE guidelines regarding consent for ECT.
All patients newly started on ECT during a 3 month period at Hellesdon Hospital were enrolled into this study. Case notes were analysed for 16 patients against the 21 standard ECTAS consent criteria.
The hospital rated good (70–89%) or excellent (90–100%) for all guidance except the one which requires patients to complete some sections of the consent form. Only 63% of the patients had completed these, however 100% went on to sign the consent form before every session. Guidance compliance was excellent for 15 (72%) of items examined.
There is good compliance with NICE guideline relating to consent for ECT. The only barrier to full compliance was inadequate documentation by patients in some sections. Steps to improve patient participation can now be implemented. This will provide assurance that ECT is used appropriately and that the process fully enables informed consent. Further research is required to discover the reasons for unsatisfactory patient participation in the consent process.
To investigate the role of perfectionism in the development of disordered eating behaviours.
382 female university students completed the Hewitt & Flett MPS and the EAT-40 at baseline, one year after (T1) and two years later (T2).
Perfectionism at baseline was significantly associated with long-term abnormal eating attitudes/behaviours. Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP) and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP) were significant predictors of disordered eating behaviours. SOP at baseline was predictive of diet concerns, at T1 and T2. Baseline SPP was correlated with overall eating disturbance at T1 and T2. Regression analysis revealed that only SPP was a significant predictor of bulimic behaviours and social pressure to eat at T1, but not at T2.
Our findings contribute to a more clear understanding of the association between perfectionism and eating disorders. SOP and SPP were prospectively associated with abnormal eating attitudes/behaviours and SOP was found to be predictive of diet concerns.
The term burnout was first introduced by Freudenberger several decades ago but remains an important problem in modern working environments. Despite the lack of a generally accepted definition, Maslach and Leither consider that burnout results from chronic stress (in the workplace) that has not been adequately dealt with. Symptoms include emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and the burnout syndrome has also been associated with medical conditions such as headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, hypertension, anxiety, depression and even acute heart disease. Other consequences include reduced performance and satisfaction at work. The Malasch Burnout Inventory is a widely used and reliable measure which has been used in different populations.
In this study the authors propose to evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in a Portuguese sample of health professionals (doctors and nurses), working in five different hospital settings (surgery, medicine, psychiatry, anesthesiology and laboratory), and its relationship with variables such as social and demographic data, job profile and job satisfaction, and balance between job and personal life. The Portuguese version of the Malasch Burnout Inventory, which has been translated and adapted to the Portuguese population by Melo and Cruz, will be used as well as a semi-structured questionnaire for remaining data.
To study Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) in bipolar patients.
Retrospective study in bipolar inpatients of an acute psychiatric Portuguese department during a two years period. Of the 60 bipolar inpatients, 31 were selected. The patients without height or weight data were excluded.
The mean age was 48.5 years. 66.7% of the patients were women. The most frequent pharmacological association (13.3%) was sodium valproate and olanzapine. Using INE´s (National Statistic Institute, 2007) criteria, 25.8% of these patients were overweight and 16.13% obese. Approximately 50% of the patients over 45 years were overweight or obese. Approximately 50% of the patients on sodium valproate were overweight or obese, although there was no statistically significant correlation between psychopharmacological treatment and BMI. Only 3.6% of the patients had systolic blood pressure above 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure above 90mmHg.
The studied population has a frequency of overweight superior to the general portuguese population (25.8% vs 18.6%). The percentage of patients with hypertension is inferior comparatively to the general population (3.6% vs 20%). The results of the study show the importance of monitoring and controlling metabolic risk factors in bipolar patients. Attending to the specificities of bipolar patients it is important to study prospectively metabolic syndrome in this population.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) involved in the structure and function of cell membranes in the brain. Because both compounds must be obtained from diet, by eating oily fish or fish oil, the consumption of fish or supplements of omega-3 could be correlated with neuropsychiatric disorders, as depression disorder.
Search of relevant studies in Scirus database.
Epidemiological studies suggest that populations with high consumption of fish have low annual prevalence of major depression. Laboratorial research verified that major depression in acute coronary syndrome patients is associated with significantly lower plasma levels of ω-3 PUFAs, in particular of DHA; red blood cells membrane levels of total ω-3 PUFAs and of DHA are significantly lower in depressive patients; low plasma concentrations of DHA predict low concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, a marker of brain serotonin turnover, which, in turn, is strongly associated with depression and suicide. Clinical trials demonstrated the efficiency of EPA in the alleviating the symptoms of major depression in adults, childhood depression and postpartum depression.
Although the depression appears to be related with low levels of DHA in plasma and blood cells, controlled trials have found no effect of DHA supplementation in depression. On the contrry, EPA might have an adjunctive therapeutic value in the treatment of depression disorder. Much research is required to compare the effectiveness of the different fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorder, as well as the relevant dose-response curves.
Prospective, randomized, two-arm, parallel assignment. 150 individuals diagnosed with major depression disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, taking combined therapy in doses considered appropriate for at least 9 months, without showing clinical remission, defined as having an HAMD17 total score ≤ 7, attending the out-patient psychiatry clinic, were initially screened through an interview with a psychiatrist. Those meeting study criteria were randomized to one of two groups: control and aerobic exercise. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board. All participants provided written informed consent. Study protocol Exercise group: individuals were assigned moderate intensity exercise, in addition to their usual pharmacological therapy. Control group: individuals who were not assigned any exercise and remained taking their usual pharmacological therapy. Both groups maintained the pharmacological therapy unchanged during the 12 week study period. All participants were evaluated at baseline (time 0: before starting the physical activity program), and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks for depressive symptoms, functional assessment and Quality of Life.
Results show that participants in the exercise group improved their quality of life parameters, suggesting that exercise could be an effective therapeutic adjuvant for non-remitted MDD patients.
To investigate associations between perfectionism dimensions and psychological distress 421 pregnant women (M=29.8, SD=4.48 years) completed measures of Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP), Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP) (MPS; Hewitt & Flett, 1991; Soares et al., 2003), mood (POMS; McNair et al., 1971; Azevedo et al., 1991) and depressive symptomatology (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996; Coelho et al., 2002).
A 2-factor model of Perfectionism with SOP and SPP dimensions and a 3-factor model with SOP, SPP-Others’ High Standards and SPP-Conditional Acceptance factors were explored. Correlations and Linear Regressions were calculated between perfectionism factors and mood variables/depressive symptoms.
Higher levels of SPP factors were in general associated with increased Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue and Confusion, with decreased Vigour and with more severe depressive symptomatology. SPP dimension and both SPP sub-scales explained depressive symptoms.
Our results, in contrast with those from the study of Campbell and DiPaula (2002) did not confirm a preferential association between SPP-Conditional Acceptance and psychological distress (PD), revealing that both components of SPP were associated with PD.