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Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and their residents are especially susceptible to disruptions associated with natural disasters and often have limited experience and resources for disaster planning and response. Previous reports have offered disaster planning and response recommendations. We could not find a comprehensive review of studied interventions or facility attributes that affect disaster outcomes in LTCFs and their residents. We reviewed articles published from 1974 through September 30, 2015, that studied disaster characteristics, facility characteristics, patient characteristics, or an intervention that affected outcomes for LTCFs experiencing or preparing for a disaster. Twenty-one articles were included in the review. All of the articles fell into 1 of the following categories: facility or disaster characteristics that predicted preparedness or response, interventions to improve preparedness, and health effects of disaster response, most often related to facility evacuation. All of the articles described observational studies that were heterogeneous in design and metrics. We believe that the evidence-based literature supports 6 specific recommendations for facilities, governmental agencies, health care communities and academia. These include integrated and coordinated disaster planning, staff training, careful consideration before governments order mandatory evacuations, anticipation of the increased medical needs of LTCF residents following a disaster, and the need for more outcomes research. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:140–149)
Anxious mothers' parenting, particularly transfer of threat information, has been considered important in their children's risk for social anxiety disorder (SAnxD), and maternal narratives concerning potential social threat could elucidate this contribution. Maternal narratives to their preschool 4- to 5-year-old children, via a picture book about starting school, were assessed in socially anxious (N = 73), and nonanxious (N = 63) mothers. Child representations of school were assessed via doll play (DP). After one school term, mothers (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) and teachers (Teacher Report Form) reported on child internalizing problems, and child SAnxD was assessed via maternal interview. Relations between these variables, infant behavioral inhibition, and attachment, were examined. Socially anxious mothers showed more negative (higher threat attribution) and less supportive (lower encouragement) narratives than controls, and their children's DP representations SAnxD and CBCL scores were more adverse. High narrative threat predicted child SAnxD; lower encouragement predicted negative child CBCL scores and, particularly for behaviorally inhibited children, Teacher Report Form scores and DP representations. In securely attached children, CBCL scores and risk for SAnxD were affected by maternal anxiety and threat attributions, respectively. Low encouragement mediated the effects of maternal anxiety on child DP representations and CBCL scores. Maternal narratives are affected by social anxiety and contribute to adverse child outcome.
The opinion has recently been expressed1 that the poisonous action of ordinary coal-gas and carburetted water-gas is probably in part due to the “Illuminant” hydro-carbons, of which ethylene is the chief, and not simply to carbonic oxide. In consequence of the doubt existing on this point one of us was asked by the recent Departmental Committee of the Home Office on Water-Gas to investigate the matter, and the results of the experiments which we were then able to make appeared in the Committee's Report2. In the main series of observations the animal was placed in a respiration chamber through which a current of air was passing at a known rate. With the current, before it entered the chamber, a known percentage of coal-gas or carburetted water-gas was mixed. It was found that whether ordinary coal-gas or carburetted water-gas was used the symptoms observed were those of carbonic oxide poisoning, and corresponded exactly to the percentages of carbonic oxide present. We also found that Benzene, which is one of the “illuminants,” is present in proportions far too small to contribute to the toxic effects of coal-gas or carburetted water-gas. Finally, we endeavoured to investigate separately the action of ethylene. The ethylene we then used was prepared in the ordinary way from sulphuric acid and alcohol, and when about 10% of the gas was mixed with air and supplied to an animal very distinct toxic symptoms were produced.
Aims: Recent years have seen an expansion of UK radiotherapy treatment capacity with a drive to reduce radiotherapy waiting times. Consequently, the time available for planning patients is decreasing. In this context, management of treatment planning workflow in the Princess Royal Hospital is described and monthly planning times are presented from September 2003 onwards.
Materials and Methods: After patients are imaged, patient name, unit number and appointments are available to the planning spreadsheet via a link to the radiotherapy information system. The planning spreadsheet is in descending order of appointment date. Treatment planning staff select the first available task, taking account of individual competencies. At plan completion, the patient record is moved to the completed list.
Results: Since September 2003, patient numbers through treatment planning steadily increased from around 90 a month to about 130 currently. Planning times decreased from 11 to 7 workdays.
Conclusions: Workflow through treatment planning is indirectly managed and the approach allows for day-to-day staffing fluctuations and competency levels. There is instant information on planning status for all patients throughout the department, building up a record as part of the work process. Bottlenecks and staff training needs can be analysed by reviewing the historic patient workload.
Commission 46 continues its task in the triennium, which started in September 2006. It seeks to further contribute to the development and improvement of astronomical education at all levels all over the world through various projects initiated, maintained and to be developed by the Commission, and by disseminating information concerning astronomy education.
Epibiotic interactions between macroalgae and crustaceans have rarely been described. We examined the interaction between the mole crab, Emerita analoga and the opportunistic algae Enteromopha spp. in a sandy beach of the central coast of Peru. Enteromorpha spp. was found fouling the carapace of the mole crab that provides the only stable substrate to spore settlement in the beach environment. Epibiosis prevalence was up to 2.1%, and affected mainly larger, ovigerous females. Prevalence presented a seasonal pattern, with peaks during summer. Mole crab body condition was higher when fouled, whereas fecundity was not affected. Fouled mole crabs burrowed at lower speed, which was reversible by the removal of epibiotic algae. The burrowing depth was not affected by epibiosis. Contrary to the expected, the effects of algal epibiosis on demographic and life history parameters of mole crabs, with the exception of body condition, were mainly neutral but important on behavioural traits.
The analysis of high S/N spectra and photometric data of 60 Cyg shows that: (1) Pronounced long-term variations in spectra are accompanied with light variations. (2) The medium-term variations of RV could indicate that 60 Cyg is a spectroscopic binary. (3) Two independent structures dominate the rapid variability of both spectrum and light of the star.
Commission 46 is dedicated to Teaching of Astronomy. Commission 46 can be seen as an
extension of the IAU Executive Committee in the sense that each adhering country has
appointed a national representative to the Commission. National Representatives maintain
liaison between the Commission and the home country, and write national triennial reports
on development of astronomy on their nations. Other IAU astronomers, with special interest in education, can become regular individual members of the Commission. Non-IAU
members can be invited by the Commission to serve for one triennial term. Commission
46 considers that one of its major duties is to contribute to enhance astronomy education
in developing countries. The Newsletter, the International School for Young Astronomers,
the Visiting Lecturer Program and the Travelling Telescope are examples of such activities administered by the Commission. The strength of Commission 46 comes from the hard
work that its members do in order to promote astronomy education worldwide.
How do students learn astronomy? How can the World-Wide Web be used to teach? And how do planetariums help with educating the public? These are just some of the timely questions addressed in this stimulating review of new trends in the teaching of astronomy. Based on an international meeting hosted by the University of London and the Open University (IAU Colloquium 162), this volume presents articles by experts from around the world. The proceedings of the first IAU Colloquium (105), The Teaching of Astronomy, edited by Percy and Pasachoff, were first published in 1990 and soon became established as the definitive resource for astronomy teachers. Astronomy education has advanced enormously in the intervening 7 years, and this sequel will inspire and encourage teachers of astronomy at all levels and provide them with wealth of ideas and experience on which to build.