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Whole grain wheat, in particular colored varieties, may have health benefits in adults with chronic metabolic disease risk factors. 29 overweight and obese adults with chronic inflammation (high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) > 1.0 mg/L) replaced four daily servings of refined grain food products with bran-enriched purple or regular whole wheat convenience bars (~ 41-45 g fiber, daily) for 8 weeks in a randomized, single-blind parallel arm study where body weight was maintained. Anthropometrics, blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipemia and metabolites of anthocyanins and phenolic acids were compared at Days 1, 29 and 57 using repeated measures analysis of variance within groups and analysis of covariance between groups at Day 57, with Day 1 as a covariate. A significant reduction in interleukin-6 and increase in adiponectin were observed within the purple wheat (PW) group. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was lowered in both groups and ferulic acid concentration increased in the regular wheat (RW) group. Comparing between wheats, only plasma TNF-α and glucose differed significantly (P<0.05), i.e. TNF-α and glucose decreased with RW and PW, respectively. Consumption of PW or RW products showed potential to improve plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in participants with evidence of chronic inflammation, with modest differences observed based on type of wheat.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord resulting in progressive paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms, which appear only late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult, making ALS an incurable disease. Novel strategies for early diagnosis of ALS, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed.
Many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. We have developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES), derived from the cells of ALS patients, in order to study the earliest stages of ALS-related skin pathology. For each participant, two skin biopsies were collected using a 6-mm diameter punch biopsy. Tissue-engineered skin was then generated from isolated keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and examined by routine histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, as well as by confocal microscopy. The ALS-TES model presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions, which are not seen in skin models derived from healthy subjects. The same abnormal skin model changes were detected skin models derived from the cells of pre- symptomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS-TES skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms underlying this disease, including cytoplasmic TDP43 accumulation, and lead to better tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring.
The UVMag consortium proposed the space mission project Arago to ESA at its M4 call. Arago is dedicated to the study of the dynamic 3D environment of stars and planets. This space mission will be equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working from 119 to 888 nm. A preliminary optical design of the whole instrument has been prepared and is presented here. The design consists of the telescope, the instrument itself, and the focusing optics. Considering not only the scientific requirements, but also the cost and size constraints to fit an M-size mission, the telescope has a 1.3 m diameter primary mirror and is a classical Cassegrain-type telescope that allows a polarization-free focus. The polarimeter is placed at this Cassegrain focus. This is the key element of the mission and the most challenging one to be designed. The main challenge lies in the huge spectral range offered by the instrument; the polarimeter has to deliver the full Stokes vector with a high precision from the FUV (119 nm) to the NIR (888 nm). The polarimeter module is then followed by a high-resolution echelle-spectrometer achieving a resolution of 35000 in the visible range and 25000 in the UV. The two channels are separated after the echelle grating, allowing specific cross-dispersion and focusing optics for the UV and the visible ranges. Considering the large field of view and the high numerical aperture, the focusing optics for both the UV and the visible channels is a Three-Mirror-Anastigmatic (TMA) telescope, needed to focus the various wavelengths and many orders onto the detectors.
We show that any directed colimit of accessible categories and accessible full embeddings is accessible and, assuming the existence of arbitrarily large strongly compact cardinals, any directed colimit of accessible categories and accessible embeddings is accessible.
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene has been implicated with obesity and dietary intake predominantly in European populations. We assessed the association between the FTO rs9939609 variant with body fat distribution and dietary intake in a multi-ethnic population. Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian participants living in Canada (n=706) were assessed for body fat and inner-abdominal fat using imaging techniques, dietary intake and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. Linear regression was used to study the associations between the minor allele of the variant and measures of adiposity and dietary intake. Minor allele frequencies were: Aboriginals (17%), Chinese (17%), Europeans (39%) and South Asians (31%). The rs9939609 variant was associated with intake of dietary macronutrients in Aboriginals and Europeans only. In the total population, there were positive associations between the rs9939609 minor allele and greater fat mass (0·94±0·56 kg, P=0·045), per cent body fat (0·7±0·4%, P=0·031), relative greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (4·9±2·8%, P=0·039) and percent daily calories from fat (0·4±0·2%, P=0·064). Our findings suggest that the FTO rs9939609 minor allele may be associated with dietary intake in adults and is positively associated with regional fat deposition.
Patterns of wool variations found in modern sheep breeds may shed some light on the history of circum-Mediterranean migrations, which at present are still largely unknown. In this study, the characteristics of wool from five different local European breeds were investigated. Wool samples were taken from the following sheep breeds: Aranese, Roussillon Red, Castillonnais, Levant Red and Majorcan Red. Specimens were collected from 88 animals in different herds for each breed. The following sheep fleece characteristics were investigated: length of long-coarse, short-fine and kemp (medullated) fibres; their proportion within the staple; yield after scouring with isoalcohol; and fibre diameter. The amount of short-fine fibres was lower in the Levant Red and Majorcan Red breeds, with an inversely proportional amount of kemp fibres. Clean yield with isoalcohol was about 80 percent in all these breeds. Fleece characteristics offer a glimpse of possible morphologic relationships between the Levant Red and Majorcan Red that moreover exhibit a similarity in colour and a geographical proximity. Because very little is still known about the nature of the patterns of the fleece of Atlantic West and North African sheep, the importance of the African influence on existing European Mediterranean red sheep breeds remains to be clarified. A plausible hypothesis is that different influences would have left different traces, with a lesser impact on Pyrenean breeds.
A virus isolated from obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), larvae collected in an apple, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), orchard of Saint-Joseph-du-Lac (Quebec, Canada) was studied. Microscopic studies revealed that it was a uninucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from the family Baculoviridae. Larval mortality was approximately 75% (0% mortality in control group) in larvae infected as third instars immersed in a suspension of 1.7 × 108 occlusion bodies/mL. The average time for larval mortality was 23 ± 3 d after treatment. The majority (95.5%) of infected larvae died as fifth or sixth instars. Infection was observed primarily in fat body cells, and occasionally in the tracheal matrix and epidermis. Mean larval development time of infected larvae surviving to pupae was 20 ± 3 d, significantly greater than the 18 ± 3 d observed in control larvae. Adult emergence was significantly lower in pupae of treated larvae (73.6%) than in the control group (93.5%). Our work constitutes the first baseline study of naturally occurring virus of the obliquebanded leafroller.
Atherosclerosis: pathogenesis, early assessment and follow-up with ultrasound
Michael M. Sabetai, Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK,
Andrew N. Nocolaides, Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK,
Thomas J. Tegos, Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK,
Surinder Dhanjil, Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK,
Gary J. Pare, Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK
Studies using ultrasound to characterize carotid bifurcation plaques in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients performed in the 1980s and early 1990s have suggested that echolucent plaques are associated with an increased risk of developing symptoms (Johnson et al., 1985; Sterpetti et al., 1988; Langsfeld et al., 1989; Bock et al., 1993; Geroulakos et al., 1993). However, clinical decisions are still made using stenosis as the main criterion. This is because the association between local risk factors such as plaque echodensity and stroke have not been defined adequately. It was realized in the late 1990s that certain features of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with an increased risk of stroke and can be determined non-invasively using high resolution ultrasound. The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on ultrasonic carotid plaque characterization and to provide an overview of current work in progress.
Carotid plaque characterization
High resolution ultrasound allows the investigator to visualize not only the lumen of the vessel but also arterial wall changes including the size and consistency of atherosclerotic plaques.
Early workers became aware of the great variability of plaque images. Several classifications have been proposed according to plaque consistency. One of the early classifications of plaque morphology was introduced by Johnston in the first study on the natural history of asymptomatic carotid stenosis using ultrasound (Johnson et al., 1985).
For the past ten years, research in our laboratory has focused on the synaptic circuitry of GABAergic and glutamatergic networks in the monkey basal ganglia, a group of subcortical brain structures involved in the control of motor and psychoaffective behaviors. Elucidating the distribution and synaptic localization of different subtypes of glutamate and GABA receptors and transporters is essential to understand the basic functioning of these brain structures and develop better therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Although immunoperoxidase labeling allows to localize receptors at the cellular level, this method is generally not suitable for quantification and exact synaptic location of receptors due to the diffuse nature of the peroxidase reaction product. Here, we describe a highly sensitive post-embedding immunogold technique on Lowicryl-embedded ultrathin sections to analyze the subsynaptic distribution of these receptors at the electron microscope level.
A partir del estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo de 46 caracteres morfológicos, obtenidos a partir de recopilaciones bibliográficas, se analizan las relaciones existentes entre 17 poblaciones equinas de la Península Ibérica (14 razas españolas y 3 portuguesas).
Los resultados obtenidos permiten clasificar a las diferentes razas en sus correspondientes troncos ancestrales: Equus ferus gmelini, Equus ferus przewalski y Equus ferus solutreensis, integrándose los representantes de los dos primeros grupos en el llamado Tronco Tarpánico.
El promedio de distancia morfológica entre razas, medida como MCD (Mean Character Difference, o promedio de diferencias entre caracteres), tomó un valor de 0,51± 0,11. El análisis cuantitativo de los datos indica que el grupo que forman los poneys ibéricos es morfológicamente muy semejante, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con los grupos de los caballos de silla y los de tiro.
Se analizan las relaciones y se discuten las causas de la variabilidad morfológica entre grupos.
Using a case study methodology, we examined the implementation of a nursing flow sheet system in the trauma center of a large, not-for-profit, teaching hospital. Findings add new insights to the existing body of knowledge in the information technology and medical informatics fields. First, results reveal that the success of clinical information systems requires a proactive stance where key actors anticipate and address the challenges ahead and capitalize on opportunities. Second, empirical evidence indicates that project outcomes ultimately depend on how the implementation process is managed and what the organization and its members do with the system once it is introduced. Finally, the case at hand shows that the nature and overall quality of the implementation strategy can be largely predicted by the key actors involved in the project, given their own background, skills, interest, and level of motivation.
A new portable device for ice-core drilling, specially designed for thin tephra-layer sampling, was tested on the South Shetland glaciers during the 1994-95 Antarctic summer. The machine is based on a combination of the standard paleomagnetism drilling machine and a specially built drill-bit designed for ice-coring.
The present investigation represents a logical continuation of a previous experiment where it was shown that the injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) alleviates the psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) (Brengelmann, Pare and Sandler, 1958). LSD is of interest in psychiatry because the psychotomimetic effects of the drug bear a resemblance to schizophrenia clinically, in psychological tests and, according to Hoagland, Rinkel and Hyde (1955), in their abnormal excretion of urinary phosphate. The possibility presents itself that, in some cases of schizophrenia, the functional abnormality is similar to that produced by LSD.
In the investigation described, the hypothesis was tested that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) acts to reduce the psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). The method was to inject 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) prior to LSD and to compare the results of psychological tests performed after these injections. Placebo controls were used.
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