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The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
Androgens have been shown to exert a cysticidal effect upon Taenia crassiceps, an experimental model of cysticercosis. To further inquire into this matter, the Taenia crassiceps model was used to evaluate the expression of several proteins after testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in vitro treatment. Under 2-D proteomic maps, parasite extracts were resolved into approximately 130 proteins distributed in a molecular weight range of 10–250 kDa and isoelectrical point range of 3–10. The resultant proteomic pattern was analysed, and significant changes were observed in response to T4 and DHT. Based on our experience with electrophoretic patterns and proteomic maps of cytoskeletal proteins, alteration in the expression of isoforms of actin, tubulin and paramyosin and of other proteins was assessed. Considering that androgens may exert their biological activity in taeniids through the non-specific progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC), we harnessed bioinformatics to propose the identity of androgen-regulated proteins and establish their hypothetical physiological role in the parasites. These analyses yield a possible explanation of how androgens exert their cysticidal effects through changes in the expression of proteins involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, dynamic vesicular traffic and transduction of intracellular signals.
Popocatépetl (19°02’ N, 98°62’W; 5424 m) is one of the largest active stratovolcanoes in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. A glacier located on the north side has undergone severe ablation since the volcano reinitiated eruptive activity in December 1994. In our study, we calculate the extent of the glacier recession and the loss in glacial mass balance during the period of greatest laharic activity (1994–2002), using photogrammetric treatment of 20 pairs of aerial photographs. The results indicate that from November 1997 to December 2002, the glacier released approximately 3 967 000 m3 of water. A period of intense glacier melting occurred from 4 November 2000 to 15 March 2001 during which time 717 000 m3 of water was released. Much of the melting was attributed to the pyroclastic flow that took place on 22 January 2001 and produced a 14.2 km lahar with 68 000 m3 of water. Among the many types of volcanic events, pyroclastic flows were the most effective in causing sudden snowmelt, although small explosions were also effective since they deposited incandescent material on the glacier. The collapse of the plinian columns covered the glacier with pyroclasts and increased its volume. The existence of control points for georeferencing and a knowledge of the topography underlying the glacier previous to the eruption would have provided more accurate and useful results for hazard prevention.
The objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on sperm sensitivity to lipid peroxidation (LP) in dogs. Using an incomplete replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design, five dogs were allocated into three groups. One of the squares was incomplete and had two dogs that were used with three treatments. The dogs were assigned to three different treatments, fed a control diet of balanced commercial food (control group; CG), control diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg body weight0·75 per d (FO group; FG) and FO plus 400 mg VE per d (FO and VE group; FEG) for 60 d. Semen samples were collected on days 0 and 60 and divided into two halves, peroxidised and control, with or without ascorbate–Fe2+, respectively. LP was measured in both halves by chemiluminescence as counts per min/mg protein. Fatty acid profile was determined by GC. Data were analysed using the mixed procedure (SAS). On day 0, LP increased in all groups in the peroxidised samples (P < 0·05). However, on day 60 LP decreased in peroxidised samples of both the FG and FEG (P < 0·05), but there were no differences between the FG and FEG (P > 0·1). Additionally, on day 60 total n-3 was higher in the FG and FEG compared with the CG (P < 0·05). Supplementation with FO alone or together with VE decreased LP in peroxidised samples. These results could indicate a protective effect of n-3 on sperm. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism whereby FO and/or FO plus VE decrease LP in dogs’ sperm.
Nutrition during periconception and early development can modulate metabolic routes to prepare the offspring for adverse conditions through a process known as nutritional programming. In gilthead sea bream, replacement of fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) in broodstock diets improves growth in the 4-month-old offspring challenged with low-FO and low-fishmeal (FM) diets for 1 month. The present study further investigated the effects of broodstock feeding on the same offspring when they were 16 months old and were challenged for a second time with the low-FM and low-FO diet for 2 months. The results showed that replacement of parental moderate-FO feeding with LO, combined with juvenile feeding at 4 months old with low-FM and low-FO diets, significantly (P<0·05) improved offspring growth and feed utilisation of low-FM/FO diets even when they were 16 months old: that is, when they were on the verge of their first reproductive season. Liver fatty acid composition was significantly affected by broodstock or reminder diets as well as by their interaction. Moreover, the reduction of long-chain PUFA and increase in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in broodstock diets lead to a significant down-regulation of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (P<0·001) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 6 (P<0·01). Besides, fatty acid desaturase 2 values were positively correlated to hepatic levels of 18 : 4n-3, 18 : 3n-6, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and 22 : 5n-6. Thus, this study demonstrated the long-term nutritional programming of gilthead sea bream through broodstock feeding, the effect of feeding a ‘reminder’ diet during juvenile stages to improve utilisation of low-FM/FO diets and fish growth as well as the regulation of gene expression along the fish’s life-cycle.
A late Holocene carbonate spring mound and associated wetland deposits at Cienega Amarilla, New Mexico, contain a 4000-yr record of geomorphic, paleoenvironmental, and hydroclimatic change on the southern Colorado Plateau. Forty-four 14C dates support a century-scale chronostratigraphic framework. Pollen, plant macrofossil, mollusk, ostracode, and soil analyses indicate rapid spring mound growth and wetland expansion beginning ~2300 cal yr BP, followed by a pronounced decline in groundwater discharge (GWD) between ~1500 and 1000 cal yr BP. The isotopic composition of Cienega Amarilla springwater suggests GWD is driven primarily by winter precipitation. Historical climate data indicate that El Niño and warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) conditions foster wetter-than-average winters in the Cienega Amarilla area, whereas dry winters are associated with La Niña conditions regardless of PDO phase. The ~2300–1500 cal yr BP Cienega Amarilla pluvial appears to represent an interval of peak, late Holocene cool-season precipitation that implies unusually strong or persistent El Niño–like and warm PDO–like conditions in the Pacific. Other southwestern paleoenvironmental records corroborate atypically wet conditions during this interval, and pluvial conditions related to increased winter precipitation likely fostered significant prehistoric cultural changes throughout the region, including increased sedentism, population, and dependence on agriculture.
Some key physical processes that impact the evolution of Earth's atmosphere on time-scale from days to millennia, such as the EUV emissions, are determined by the solar magnetic field. However, observations of the solar spectral irradiance are restricted to the last few solar cycles and are subject to large uncertainties. We present a physics-based model to reconstruct short-term solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variability. The coronal magnetic field is estimated to employ the Potential Field Source Surface extrapolation (PFSS) based on observational synoptic charts and magnetic flux transport model. The emission is estimated to employ the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the model is compared to the emission observed by TIMED/SORCE.
We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.
Magnetic instability is a key consideration for filament eruptions and subsequent CMEs. In this contribution we are considering different magnetic conditions for active and non-active regions, such as coronal hole regions and quiet sun, and also active regions of a simple magnetic configuration. The aim is to assess magnetic instability through potential and non-potential field modelling and 3D evaluation of the magnetic decay index. Some eruptive examples from solar cycle 24 using HMI/SDO data are presented, complemented with observations of AIA/SDO.
The density and temperature profiles in the solar corona are complex to describe, the observational diagnostics is not easy. Here we present a physics-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the electron density and temperature in the solar corona based on the configuration of the magnetic field imprinted on the solar surface. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) based on magnetic field from both observational synoptic charts and a magnetic flux transport model. We use an emission model based on the ionization equilibrium and coronal abundances from CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The preliminary results are discussed in details.
The magnetic flux emergence can help understand the physical mechanism responsible for solar atmospheric phenomena. Emerging magnetic flux is frequently related to eruptive events, because when emerging they can reconnected with the ambient field and release magnetic energy. We will use a physic-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the solar emission based on the configuration of the photospheric magnetic field. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated by employing force-free extrapolation NLFFF based on vector magnetic field products (SHARPS) observed by HMI instrument aboard SDO spacecraft from Sept. 29 (2013) to Oct. 07 (2013). The coronal plasma temperature and density are described and the emission is estimated using the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the our model is compared to the integrated emission from the AIA instrument aboard SDO spacecraft in the specific wavelengths 171Å and 304Å.
Recent archaeological investigations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon reveal that residents constructed a large diversion channel during the eleventh century A.D. as dramatic growth resulted in the expansion of the building onto the main valley floor. Sediments in the diversion channel reflect repeated episodes of flooding, rather than slow moving water typically found in irrigation canals, and archaeobotanical data indicate deposition during late summer or early fall. Although an agricultural function is possible, the channel may have been built primarily to divert floodwaters away from Pueblo Bonito while providing a nearby water source for construction and domestic use. The diversion channel was destroyed by the entrenchment of the “Bonito paleo-channel” in the late A.D. 1000s, and then buried by a combination of cultural debris and valley flooding. Although the canyon stream system changed throughout the occupation of Pueblo Bonito, there is no evidence that the formation of a deep natural channel in the floodplain had any negative effect on the growth of the great house
Most research on interventions to counter stigma and discrimination has
focused on short-term outcomes and has been conducted in high-income
To synthesise what is known globally about effective interventions to
reduce mental illness-based stigma and discrimination, in relation first
to effectiveness in the medium and long term (minimum 4 weeks), and
second to interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
We searched six databases from 1980 to 2013 and conducted a
multi-language Google search for quantitative studies addressing the
research questions. Effect sizes were calculated from eligible studies
where possible, and narrative syntheses conducted. Subgroup analysis
compared interventions with and without social contact.
Eighty studies (n = 422 653) were included in the
review. For studies with medium or long-term follow-up (72, of which 21
had calculable effect sizes) median standardised mean differences were
0.54 for knowledge and −0.26 for stigmatising attitudes. Those containing
social contact (direct or indirect) were not more effective than those
without. The 11 LMIC studies were all from middle-income countries.
Effect sizes were rarely calculable for behavioural outcomes or in LMIC
There is modest evidence for the effectiveness of anti-stigma
interventions beyond 4 weeks follow-up in terms of increasing knowledge
and reducing stigmatising attitudes. Evidence does not support the view
that social contact is the more effective type of intervention for
improving attitudes in the medium to long term. Methodologically strong
research is needed on which to base decisions on investment in
We present stellar evolution models of young solar-type stars including self consistent treatment of rotational mixing and extraction of angular momentum (AM) by magnetized wind including the most up-to-date physic of AM transport.
The response of vascular epiphyte communities following natural or human disturbance has been little studied. Over 5 y, we evaluated the post-stripping recolonization of vascular epiphytes in cloud forest. Vascular epiphytes were experimentally removed from branch and trunk plots (1 m in length) on five trees in two secondary cloud forest fragments in southern Mexico. Similarity between colonizer and established communities was compared in each fragment using a further five trees with no stripping. All seedlings were recorded yearly. Non-vascular epiphyte cover was estimated in each plot. The recolonization rate was very high; after 5 y, epiphyte density of the colonizer community (27.4 ± 6.8 individuals per segment) reached similar values to those of the established community (26.7 ± 3.3) in nearby trees. While similarity (composition and abundance) between the colonizer community and established community was high (81%), diversity accumulation curves indicated that the colonizer community presents a lower diversity of epiphytes (5.5 equivalent species) than the established community (11.4). Colonization of xerophytic bromeliads was high, while pteridophytes and orchids presented reduced recovery. The immediately surrounding source of propagules had a strong influence on recolonization. In both the colonizer and established communities, dominance rank was bromeliads > peperomias > pteridophytes. The results show that the recovery capacity of epiphytic vegetation in secondary forest is high, if propagule sources are close by. However, at 5 y after disturbance, it is unclear whether the colonizer community would present the same species composition as the established community or if it would give rise to a different community.
In this work, we have reported the interface characterization of rf sputtered ZnO/HfO2 in thin film transistor structure by dc current-voltage and admittance spectroscopy. The interface state density (Dit) of 1013 eV−1cm−2 was extracted from the Gp/ω vs ω plot was comparable to value obtained from the subthreshold behavior. The grain boundary trap density (NGB) of 9.12×1012 cm−2 was estimated using Levinson’s model. The interface state density distribution below the conduction band edge shows a decreasing trend with energy below the conduction band edge. We also studied the impact of introducing MgO interfacial layer between ZnO and HfO2 interface as an approach towards decreasing the interface state density.
CZT is a semiconductor material that promises to be a good candidate for uncooled gamma radiation detectors. However, to date, technological difficulties in production of large size defect-free CZT crystals are yet to be overcome. The most common problem is accumulation of tellurium precipitates as microscopic inclusions. These inclusions influence the charge collection through charge trapping and electric field distortion. The common work-around solutions are to fabricate pixelated detectors by either grouping together many small volume CZT crystals to act as individual detectors, or to deposit a pixelated grid of electrical contacts on a larger, but defective, crystal, and selectively collect charge. These solutions are satisfactory in an R&D environment, but are unsuitable for mass production and commercial development. Our modeling effort is aimed at quantifying the various contributions of tellurium inclusions in CZT crystals to the charge generation, transport, and collection, as a function of inclusions size, position, and concentration. We model the energy deposition of gamma photons in the sensitive volume of the detector using LANL’s MCNP code. The electron-hole pairs produced at the energy deposition sites are then transported through the defective crystal and collected as integral charge at the electrical contact sites using CERN’s Garfield software package. The size and position distribution of tellurium inclusions is modeled by sampling experimentally measured distributions of such inclusions on a variety of commercially-grown CZT crystals using IR microscopy and image processing software packages.
A single-grained Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) was successfully grown for the gate dielectric of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT). The total structure was MoW/PZT/HfO2/poly-Si/glass. The giant single-grained PZT was obtained by controlling the artificial nucleation formed by Pt dots in a desirable location and enlarging the nucleated seed until it covers the poly-Si channel. The single-grained diameter size was 40 μm with a (100) dominated texture. The poly-Si memory device with single-grained PZT showed an excellent ferroelectric, electrical and reliability properties comparing with poly-Si memory device with poly-grained PZT. Moreover, eliminating the grain boundary in PZT film showed the fatigue and retention characteristics with only 1.1 % after 1013 cycles and 22 % after 1 month, respectively.